Sunday, April 24, 2016

Genesis 7, the flood, continued

אִ֥ישׁ וְאִשְׁתּֽוֹ - is not male and female strictly speaking, but it is used in verse 2 for the description of the clean and unclean beasts. Then in verse 16, the usual phrase for male and female is used, זָכָ֨ר וּנְקֵבָ֤ה. So I chose each and its mate for the beasts, perhaps with some anthropocentric prejudice on my part.

There are large chunks of repetition in this chapter. 36 words recur more than 3 times in the 24 verses. 12 words recur exactly twice. Only verse 22 is without a mid-verse rest. Over half the words in this chapter are shared with Genesis 1 (382 of 651). 

Twice we get this unique combination אֶֽת־כָּל־הַיְק֣וּם all that was placed. Perhaps I should follow others in rendering this phrase, but why start following others now! It is a word related to קום, for which common glosses are related to place or to exaltation, arising, and so on. Only used elsewhere in this form in Deuteronomy 11:6. I think this is a deliberate taking away of what was constructed in Genesis 1:9. Why then the use of desert (v 22) rather than dry land? Whatever the reason, place is a loaded word in both Old and New testament. So maybe it is important here and in the later place where we will have to deal with rebellion of another sort.

One day I will publish my glossary. A glossary is not a dictionary, but a record of decisions. Remember that - A does not mean B. Rather, the translator chose B to represent A for some reason or other. And some reasons / decisions may be more suitable than others. My intention is to preserve the pattern of variation and non-variation of word usage as much as I can. It's a chosen constraint.

There are more peculiarities of the phrasing of this chapter. I could have chosen more traditional glosses, but would that have hidden something from me that I should not 'gloss over'. Like עצם (bones, numerous) in verse 13. Maybe the deluge is a repetitive phenomenon and the barge really is the assembly. I used the phrase span for time since day and night are singular in the Hebrew.

As Herbert wrote in the poem Easter of  'days', There is but one and that one ever.
Genesis 7
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ לְנֹ֔חַ בֹּֽא־אַתָּ֥ה וְכָל־בֵּיתְךָ֖ אֶל־הַתֵּבָ֑ה
כִּֽי־אֹתְךָ֥ רָאִ֛יתִי צַדִּ֥יק לְפָנַ֖י בַּדּ֥וֹר הַזֶּֽה
1 And Yahweh said to Noah, You come, you and all your house into the barge,
for you I have seen righteous in my presence in this generation.
18
15
מִכֹּ֣ל ׀ הַבְּהֵמָ֣ה הַטְּהוֹרָ֗ה תִּֽקַּח־לְךָ֛ שִׁבְעָ֥ה שִׁבְעָ֖ה אִ֣ישׁ וְאִשְׁתּ֑וֹ
וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָ֡ה אֲ֠שֶׁר לֹ֣א טְהֹרָ֥ה הִ֛וא שְׁנַ֖יִם אִ֥ישׁ וְאִשְׁתּֽוֹ
2 From all the clean beasts you take for yourself seven by seven each and its mate and from the beast that is not clean, it, by two each and its mate. 20
18
גַּ֣ם מֵע֧וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֛יִם שִׁבְעָ֥ה שִׁבְעָ֖ה זָכָ֣ר וּנְקֵבָ֑ה
לְחַיּ֥וֹת זֶ֖רַע עַל־פְּנֵ֥י כָל־הָאָֽרֶץ
3 Likewise of the fowl of the heavens, seven by seven, male and female,
to keep alive seed over the surface of all the earth.
15
12
כִּי֩ לְיָמִ֨ים ע֜וֹד שִׁבְעָ֗ה אָֽנֹכִי֙ מַמְטִ֣יר עַל־הָאָ֔רֶץ אַרְבָּעִ֣ים י֔וֹם וְאַרְבָּעִ֖ים לָ֑יְלָה
וּמָחִ֗יתִי אֶֽת־כָּל־הַיְקוּם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂ֔יתִי מֵעַ֖ל פְּנֵ֥י הָֽאֲדָמָֽה
4 For in yet seven days I will cause rain upon the earth, a forty day and forty night span.
I will wipe out all that was placed that I constructed from off the surface of the ground.
26
21
וַיַּ֖עַשׂ נֹ֑חַ
כְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֖הוּ יְהוָֽה
5 And Noah did
according to everything that Yahweh had commanded.
5
9
וְנֹ֕חַ בֶּן־שֵׁ֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה
וְהַמַּבּ֣וּל הָיָ֔ה מַ֖יִם עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ
6 And Noah was a child of six hundred years
when the deluge was, of waters on the earth.
9
11
וַיָּ֣בֹא נֹ֗חַ וּ֠בָנָיו וְאִשְׁתּ֧וֹ וּנְשֵֽׁי־בָנָ֛יו אִתּ֖וֹ אֶל־הַתֵּבָ֑ה
מִפְּנֵ֖י מֵ֥י הַמַּבּֽוּל
7 And Noah entered and his children and his wife and the wives of his children with him to the barge,
from the face of the waters of the deluge.
20
6
מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה֙ הַטְּהוֹרָ֔ה וּמִן־הַ֨בְּהֵמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֵינֶ֖נָּה טְהֹרָ֑ה
וּמִ֨ן־הָע֔וֹף וְכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־רֹמֵ֖שׂ עַל־הָֽאֲדָמָֽה
8 From the beast that is clean and from the beast that is not clean
and from from the fowl and all that creep over the ground,
20
15
שְׁנַ֨יִם שְׁנַ֜יִם בָּ֧אוּ אֶל־נֹ֛חַ אֶל־הַתֵּבָ֖ה זָכָ֣ר וּנְקֵבָ֑ה
כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־נֹֽחַ
9 Two by two they entered, to Noah, into the barge, male and female,
as God commanded Noah.
18
11
וַֽיְהִ֖י לְשִׁבְעַ֣ת הַיָּמִ֑ים
וּמֵ֣י הַמַּבּ֔וּל הָי֖וּ עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ
10 And it happened on the seventh of the days,
and the waters of the deluge were upon the earth.
8
11
בִּשְׁנַ֨ת שֵׁשׁ־מֵא֤וֹת שָׁנָה֙ לְחַיֵּי־נֹ֔חַ בַּחֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י בְּשִׁבְעָֽה־עָשָׂ֥ר י֖וֹם לַחֹ֑דֶשׁ
בַּיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֗ה נִבְקְעוּ֙ כָּֽל־מַעְיְנֹת֙ תְּה֣וֹם רַבָּ֔ה וַאֲרֻבֹּ֥ת הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם נִפְתָּֽחוּ
11 In the six hundredth year, a year of the life of Noah, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month,
on this day all the springs of the abyss were split to excess and the slits of the heavens were set wide open.
26
25
וַֽיְהִ֥י הַגֶּ֖שֶׁם עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ
אַרְבָּעִ֣ים י֔וֹם וְאַרְבָּעִ֖ים לָֽיְלָה
12 And the heavy rain was upon the earth,
a forty day and forty night span.
9
10
בְּעֶ֨צֶם הַיּ֤וֹם הַזֶּה֙ בָּ֣א נֹ֔חַ וְשֵׁם־וְחָ֥ם וָיֶ֖פֶת בְּנֵי־נֹ֑חַ
וְאֵ֣שֶׁת נֹ֗חַ וּשְׁלֹ֧שֶׁת נְשֵֽׁי־בָנָ֛יו אִתָּ֖ם אֶל־הַתֵּבָֽה
13 In the numerous instances of this day, entered Noah and Shem and Ham and Japhet the children of Noah,
and the wife of Noah and the three wives of his children with them, into the barge.
20
17
הֵ֜מָּה וְכָל־הַֽחַיָּ֣ה לְמִינָ֗הּ וְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה֙ לְמִינָ֔הּ וְכָל־הָרֶ֛מֶשׂ הָרֹמֵ֥שׂ עַל־הָאָ֖רֶץ לְמִינֵ֑הוּ
וְכָל־הָע֣וֹף לְמִינֵ֔הוּ כֹּ֖ל צִפּ֥וֹר כָּל־כָּנָֽף
14 They and all the living of its species, and every beast of its species and every creeper that creeps upon the earth of its species,
and all the fowl of its species, every bird of every wing.
34
14
וַיָּבֹ֥אוּ אֶל־נֹ֖חַ אֶל־הַתֵּבָ֑ה
שְׁנַ֤יִם שְׁנַ֙יִם֙ מִכָּל־הַבָּשָׂ֔ר אֲשֶׁר־בּ֖וֹ ר֥וּחַ חַיִּֽים
15 And they came to Noah into the barge two by two,
from all the flesh that has in it a spirit living.
10
16
וְהַבָּאִ֗ים זָכָ֨ר וּנְקֵבָ֤ה מִכָּל־בָּשָׂר֙ בָּ֔אוּ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה אֹת֖וֹ אֱלֹהִ֑ים
וַיִּסְגֹּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה בַּֽעֲדֽוֹ
16 And they that entered, male and female from all flesh, entered as commanded God him,
and Yahweh placed the bar from within.
25
8
וַֽיְהִ֧י הַמַּבּ֛וּל אַרְבָּעִ֥ים י֖וֹם עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וַיִּרְבּ֣וּ הַמַּ֗יִם וַיִּשְׂאוּ֙ אֶת־הַתֵּבָ֔ה וַתָּ֖רָם מֵעַ֥ל הָאָֽרֶץ
17 And the deluge was a forty day span upon the earth.
And the waters increased and they lifted up the barge and it was exalted above the earth.
13
20
וַיִּגְבְּר֥וּ הַמַּ֛יִם וַיִּרְבּ֥וּ מְאֹ֖ד עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וַתֵּ֥לֶךְ הַתֵּבָ֖ה עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַמָּֽיִם
18 And the waters prevailed and were much increased upon the earth,
and the barge meandered upon the face of the waters.
15
12
וְהַמַּ֗יִם גָּֽבְר֛וּ מְאֹ֥ד מְאֹ֖ד עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וַיְכֻסּ֗וּ כָּל־הֶֽהָרִים֙ הַגְּבֹהִ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־תַּ֖חַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָֽיִם
19 And the waters prevailed very much upon the earth,
and covered all the haughty hills that were under all the heavens.
13
19
חֲמֵ֨שׁ עֶשְׂרֵ֤ה אַמָּה֙ מִלְמַ֔עְלָה גָּבְר֖וּ הַמָּ֑יִם
וַיְכֻסּ֖וּ הֶהָרִֽים
20 Fifteen cubits from her ascent the waters prevailed,
and they covered the hills.
14
6
וַיִּגְוַ֞ע כָּל־בָּשָׂ֣ר ׀ הָרֹמֵ֣שׂ עַל־הָאָ֗רֶץ בָּע֤וֹף וּבַבְּהֵמָה֙ וּבַ֣חַיָּ֔ה וּבְכָל־הַשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵ֣ץ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וְכֹ֖ל הָאָדָֽם
21 And all flesh expired that creeps upon the earth, of fowl and of beast and of life, and of all that teem, that teem upon the earth,
and all humanity.
35
5
כֹּ֡ל אֲשֶׁר֩ נִשְׁמַת־ר֨וּחַ חַיִּ֜ים בְּאַפָּ֗יו מִכֹּ֛ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר בֶּחָֽרָבָ֖ה מֵֽתוּ 22 All in whose nose is the breath of a living spirit, all that were in the desert, they died. 22
וַיִּ֜מַח אֶֽת־כָּל־הַיְק֣וּם ׀ אֲשֶׁ֣ר ׀ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י הָֽאֲדָמָ֗ה מֵאָדָ֤ם עַד־בְּהֵמָה֙ עַד־רֶ֙מֶשׂ֙ וְעַד־ע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וַיִּמָּח֖וּ מִן־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וַיִשָּׁ֧אֶר אַךְ־נֹ֛חַ וַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר אִתּ֖וֹ בַּתֵּבָֽה
23 And wiped out was all that was placed that is on the face of the ground, from human to beast to creeper and to the fowl of the heavens and they were wiped out from the earth,
and the residue was but Noah and those who were with him on the barge.
40
14
וַיִּגְבְּר֥וּ הַמַּ֖יִם עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ
חֲמִשִּׁ֥ים וּמְאַ֖ת יֽוֹם
24 And the waters prevailed upon the earth,
a hundred and fifty day span.
10
6


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