Thursday, April 21, 2016

2 Chronicles 25

Not my favorite story, but I have now really read it and will not likely forget it completely. Its value may lie in clues to uncovering the history of the language and its markings. Of course it also underscores the tribal brutality of the human and the exploitation that is in its leadership. And where the stories are doubles, one provides clues that are lacking in the other.

I have already commented on the music briefly in the prior two posts.

I had a brief look at possible recurrence patterns. But this is a hodge podge of political journalism rather than story or poetry. Little books like Ruth or Jonah, so intricately constructed, or grand poems like Job and the Psalms, share little with this genre. So in retrospect, it is not appropriate for me to think of a bard or ballad, but rather an investigative reporter, perhaps with an ax to grind, reciting a shameful past.

What do I make, for instance of the phrase כִּ֣י אֵ֤ין יְהוָה֙ עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל literally for there is no Yahweh with Israel (or for that matter with) all the children of Ephraim? It seems to be a lead in to disaster. The man of God is baiting the king, not telling him any serious truth, and the king takes the bait. So also with the follow on - Yahweh has more for you... There are also missing words and I did not fill them in like the verb in verse 24.

The verse that contracts mercenaries is the only one without a mid-verse rest (atnah). Curiously, I have noted the atnah as late as the ante penultimate word and as early as the second word even of a long verse.

Perhaps now we know what 'and he occupied the Sela in the battle' means in 2 Kings 14. It is a reference to the cliff where the living captives were pushed over and fell to their deaths. A war crime.

2 Chronicles 25
בֶּן־עֶשְׂרִ֨ים וְחָמֵ֤שׁ שָׁנָה֙ מָלַ֣ךְ אֲמַצְיָ֔הוּ וְעֶשְׂרִ֣ים וָתֵ֙שַׁע֙ שָׁנָ֔ה מָלַ֖ךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
וְשֵׁ֣ם אִמּ֔וֹ יְהוֹעַדָּ֖ן מִירוּשָׁלָֽיִם
1 A child of twenty five years, Amaziah reigned, and twenty nine years he reigned in Jerusalem.
And the name of his mother was Jehoaddan from Jerusalem.
28
13
וַיַּ֥עַשׂ הַיָּשָׁ֖ר בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
רַ֕ק לֹ֖א בְּלֵבָ֥ב שָׁלֵֽם
2 And he did what is upright in the eyes of Yahweh
but not with a whole heart.
11
7
וַיְהִ֕י כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר חָזְקָ֥ה הַמַּמְלָכָ֖ה עָלָ֑יו
וַֽיַּהֲרֹג֙ אֶת־עֲבָדָ֔יו הַמַּכִּ֖ים אֶת־הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ אָבִֽיו
3 And it happened that the kingdom resolutely for him,
and he slew his servants that had struck the king his father.
13
17
וְאֶת־בְּנֵיהֶ֖ם לֹ֣א הֵמִ֑ית
כִּ֣י כַכָּת֣וּב בַּתּוֹרָ֡ה בְּסֵ֣פֶר מֹשֶׁה֩ אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֨ה יְהוָ֜ה לֵאמֹ֗ר לֹא־יָמ֨וּתוּ אָב֤וֹת עַל־בָּנִים֙ וּבָנִים֙ לֹא־יָמ֣וּתוּ עַל־אָב֔וֹת כִּ֛י אִ֥ישׁ בְּחֶטְא֖וֹ יָמֽוּתוּ
4 But their children he did not put to death,
as it is written in the instruction in the record of Moses which Yahweh commanded saying, Fathers will not die for children and children will not die for fathers, but each in his sin will die.
8
45
וַיִּקְבֹּ֤ץ אֲמַצְיָ֙הוּ֙ אֶת־יְהוּדָ֔ה וַיַּֽעֲמִידֵ֣ם לְבֵית־אָב֗וֹת לְשָׂרֵ֤י הָאֲלָפִים֙ וּלְשָׂרֵ֣י הַמֵּא֔וֹת לְכָל־יְהוּדָ֖ה וּבִנְיָמִ֑ן
וַֽיִּפְקְדֵ֗ם לְמִבֶּ֨ן עֶשְׂרִ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה וַיִּמְצָאֵ֗ם שְׁלֹשׁ־מֵא֨וֹת אֶ֤לֶף בָּחוּר֙ יוֹצֵ֣א צָבָ֔א אֹחֵ֖ז רֹ֥מַח וְצִנָּֽה
5 And Amaziah collected Judah and he made them stand for the houses of the ancestors as the chiefs of thousands and the chiefs of hundreds for all Judah and Benjamin.
And he conscripted them from the sons, twenty years and upward, and he inaugurated them, three hundred thousand chosen going out, a host grasping pike and grappling hook.
42
37
וַיִּשְׂכֹּ֣ר מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֗ל מֵ֥אָה אֶ֛לֶף גִּבּ֥וֹר חָ֖יִל בְּמֵאָ֥ה כִכַּר־כָּֽסֶף 6 And he contracted from Israel a hundred thousand men of valour and ability for a hundred talents of silver. 22
וְאִ֣ישׁ הָאֱלֹהִ֗ים בָּ֤א אֵלָיו֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הַמֶּ֕לֶךְ אַל־יָבֹ֥א עִמְּךָ֖ צְבָ֣א יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
כִּ֣י אֵ֤ין יְהוָה֙ עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כֹּ֖ל בְּנֵ֥י אֶפְרָֽיִם
7 And a man of God came to him saying, O king do not bring with you the host of Israel,
because Yahweh is not with Israel, all the children of Ephraim.
24
14
כִּ֚י אִם־בֹּ֣א אַתָּ֔ה עֲשֵׂ֖ה חֲזַ֣ק לַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה
יַכְשִֽׁילְךָ֤ הָֽאֱלֹהִים֙ לִפְנֵ֣י אוֹיֵ֔ב כִּ֥י יֶשׁ־כֹּ֛חַ בֵּאלֹהִ֖ים לַעְז֥וֹר וּלְהַכְשִֽׁיל
8 But if you come, you, do undertake to be courageous in battle.
God will make you stumble in the presence of an enemy, because there is power in God to help and to cause stumbling.
13
23
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲמַצְיָ֙הוּ֙ לְאִ֣ישׁ הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים וּמַֽה־לַּעֲשׂוֹת֙ לִמְאַ֣ת הַכִּכָּ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֖תִּי לִגְד֣וּד יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אִ֣ישׁ הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים יֵ֚שׁ לַֽיהוָ֔ה לָ֥תֶת לְךָ֖ הַרְבֵּ֥ה מִזֶּֽה
9 And Amaziah said to the man of God, And what is to be done with the hundred talents that I gave to the raiding-party of Israel?
And the man of God said, There is more than this that is Yahweh's to give to you.
33
19
וַיַּבְדִּילֵ֣ם אֲמַצְיָ֗הוּ לְהַגְּדוּד֙ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֤א אֵלָיו֙ מֵֽאֶפְרַ֔יִם לָלֶ֖כֶת לִמְקוֹמָ֑ם
וַיִּ֨חַר אַפָּ֤ם מְאֹד֙ בִּֽיהוּדָ֔ה וַיָּשׁ֥וּבוּ לִמְקוֹמָ֖ם בָּחֳרִי־אָֽף
10 And Amaziah differentiated the raiding-party that had come to him from Ephraim to go to their place,
and their anger burned much against Judah and they returned to their place burning with anger.
25
21
וַאֲמַצְיָ֙הוּ֙ הִתְחַזַּ֔ק וַיִּנְהַג֙ אֶת־עַמּ֔וֹ וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ גֵּ֣יא הַמֶּ֑לַח
וַיַּ֥ךְ אֶת־בְּנֵי־שֵׂעִ֖יר עֲשֶׂ֥רֶת אֲלָפִֽים
11 And Amaziah had courage and he drove his people and he went to the salt gorge,
and struck the children of Seir, ten thousand.
21
12
וַעֲשֶׂ֨רֶת אֲלָפִ֜ים חַיִּ֗ים שָׁבוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה וַיְבִיא֖וּם לְרֹ֣אשׁ הַסָּ֑לַע
וַיַּשְׁלִיכ֛וּם מֵֽרֹאשׁ־הַסֶּ֖לַע וְכֻלָּ֥ם נִבְקָֽעוּ
12 And ten thousand alive, the children of Judah led captive and brought them to the top of the cliff,
and they cast them down from the top of the cliff and they all were split in two.
24
15
וּבְנֵ֣י הַגְּד֗וּד אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֵשִׁ֤יב אֲמַצְיָ֙הוּ֙ מִלֶּ֤כֶת עִמּוֹ֙ לַמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וַֽיִּפְשְׁטוּ֙ בְּעָרֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה מִשֹּׁמְר֖וֹן וְעַד־בֵּ֣ית חוֹר֑וֹן
וַיַּכּ֤וּ מֵהֶם֙ שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת אֲלָפִ֔ים וַיָּבֹ֖זּוּ בִּזָּ֥ה רַבָּֽה
13 And the children of the raiding party that Amaziah had turned back instead of going with him to battle pillaged in the cities of Judah from Samaria to BethHoron,
and they struck them, three thousand, and they looted lots of loot.
39
19
וַיְהִ֗י אַחֲרֵ֨י ב֤וֹא אֲמַצְיָ֙הוּ֙ מֵֽהַכּ֣וֹת אֶת־אֲדוֹמִ֔ים וַיָּבֵ֗א אֶת־אֱלֹהֵי֙ בְּנֵ֣י שֵׂעִ֔יר וַיַּֽעֲמִידֵ֥ם ל֖וֹ לֵאלֹהִ֑ים
וְלִפְנֵיהֶ֥ם יִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֶ֖ה וְלָהֶ֥ם יְקַטֵּֽר
14 And it was after Amaziah came from striking Edom that he summoned the God of the children of Seir and he made them stand for him as God,
and to their faces prostrated himself and to them burnt incense.
37
14
וַיִּֽחַר־אַ֥ף יְהוָ֖ה בַּאֲמַצְיָ֑הוּ
וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח אֵלָיו֙ נָבִ֔יא וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֗וֹ לָ֤מָּה דָרַ֙שְׁתָּ֙ אֶת־אֱלֹהֵ֣י הָעָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹא־הִצִּ֥ילוּ אֶת־עַמָּ֖ם מִיָּדֶֽךָ
15 And the anger of Yahweh burned against Amaziah,
and he sent to him a prophet and he said to him, Why enquire of the God of the people who did not deliver their own people from your hand?
11
34
וַיְהִ֣י ׀ בְּדַבְּר֣וֹ אֵלָ֗יו וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ הַלְיוֹעֵ֤ץ לַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ נְתַנּ֔וּךָ חֲדַל־לְךָ֖ לָ֣מָּה יַכּ֑וּךָ
וַיֶּחְדַּ֣ל הַנָּבִ֗יא וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ יָדַ֗עְתִּי כִּֽי־יָעַ֤ץ אֱלֹהִים֙ לְהַשְׁחִיתֶ֔ךָ כִּֽי־עָשִׂ֣יתָ זֹּ֔את וְלֹ֥א שָׁמַ֖עְתָּ לַעֲצָתִֽי
16 And it was as he spoke to him that he said to him, are you given as the advisor for the king? Give it up. Why should you be stricken?
So the prophet gave up saying, I know that the advice of God is to destroy you because you have done this and you did not hear my advice.
30
35
וַיִּוָּעַ֗ץ אֲמַצְיָ֙הוּ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֔ה וַ֠יִּשְׁלַח אֶל־יוֹאָ֨שׁ בֶּן־יְהוֹאָחָ֧ז בֶּן־יֵה֛וּא מֶ֥לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר
לְכָ֖ה נִתְרָאֶ֥ה פָנִֽים
17 Then Amaziah king of Judah took advice and he sent to Joash child of Jehoahaz child of Jehu king of Israel saying
Come let us show our faces.
34
7
וַיִּשְׁלַ֞ח יוֹאָ֣שׁ מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אֶל־אֲמַצְיָ֣הוּ מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה֮ לֵאמֹר֒ הַח֜וֹחַ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּלְּבָנ֗וֹן שָׁ֠לַח אֶל־הָאֶ֜רֶז אֲשֶׁ֤ר בַּלְּבָנוֹן֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר תְּנָֽה־אֶת־בִּתְּךָ֥ לִבְנִ֖י לְאִשָּׁ֑ה
וַֽתַּעֲבֹ֞ר חַיַּ֤ת הַשָּׂדֶה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּלְּבָנ֔וֹן וַתִּרְמֹ֖ס אֶת־הַחֽוֹחַ
18 And Joash king of Israel sent to Amaziah king of Judah saying, The thorn that was in Lebanon sent to the cedar that was in Lebanon and said, Give your daughter to my son as wife,
and an animal of the field passed by that was in Lebanon and trampled the thorn.
53
21
אָמַ֗רְתָּ הִנֵּ֤ה הִכִּ֙יתָ֙ אֶת־אֱד֔וֹם וּנְשָׂאֲךָ֥ לִבְּךָ֖ לְהַכְבִּ֑יד
עַתָּה֙ שְׁבָ֣ה בְּבֵיתֶ֔ךָ לָ֤מָּה תִתְגָּרֶה֙ בְּרָעָ֔ה וְנָ֣פַלְתָּ֔ אַתָּ֖ה וִיהוּדָ֥ה עִמָּֽךְ
19 You say, Behold, you strike Edom, and your heart bears with the glory.
Now, sit in your house. Why meddle and get hurt and you fall, you and Judah with you.
20
27
וְלֹא־שָׁמַ֣ע אֲמַצְיָ֔הוּ כִּ֤י מֵהָֽאֱלֹהִים֙ הִ֔יא לְמַ֖עַן תִּתָּ֣ם בְּיָ֑ד
כִּ֣י דָֽרְשׁ֔וּ אֵ֖ת אֱלֹהֵ֥י אֱדֽוֹם
20 But Amaziah did not hear because it was from God, so that he might give them into the hand,
because they enquired of the God of Edom.
21
9
וַיַּ֨עַל יוֹאָ֤שׁ מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וַיִּתְרָא֣וּ פָנִ֔ים ה֖וּא וַאֲמַצְיָ֣הוּ מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֑ה
בְּבֵ֥ית שֶׁ֖מֶשׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר לִיהוּדָֽה
21 So Jehoash king of Israel ascended and they showed their faces, he and Amaziah, king of Judah
in The-House-of-the-Sun that was Judah's.
27
9
וַיִּנָּ֥גֶף יְהוּדָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיָּנֻ֖סוּ אִ֥ישׁ לְאֹהָלָֽיו
22 And Judah was plagued in the face of Israel,
and they withdrew each to his tent.
12
9
וְאֵת֩ אֲמַצְיָ֨הוּ מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֜ה בֶּן־יוֹאָ֣שׁ בֶּן־יְהוֹאָחָ֗ז תָּפַ֛שׂ יוֹאָ֥שׁ מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּבֵ֣ית שָׁ֑מֶשׁ
וַיְבִיאֵ֙הוּ֙ יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם וַיִּפְרֹ֞ץ בְּחוֹמַ֣ת יְרוּשָׁלִַ֗ם מִשַּׁ֤עַר אֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ עַד־שַׁ֣עַר הַפּוֹנֶ֔ה אַרְבַּ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת אַמָּֽה
23 And Amaziah king of Judah, child of Jehoash, child of Achaziah, Joash king of Israel arrested in The-House-of-the-sun,
and he brought him to Jerusalem and breached the walls of Jerusalem from the gate of Ephraim to the gate of the corner, four hundred cubits.
32
35
וְכָֽל־הַזָּהָ֣ב וְהַכֶּ֡סֶף וְאֵ֣ת כָּל־הַ֠כֵּלִים הַנִּמְצְאִ֨ים בְּבֵית־הָאֱלֹהִ֜ים עִם־עֹבֵ֣ד אֱד֗וֹם וְאֶת־אֹצְרוֹת֙ בֵּ֣ית הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְאֵ֖ת בְּנֵ֣י הַתַּֽעֲרֻב֑וֹת
וַיָּ֖שָׁב שֹׁמְרֽוֹן
24 And all the gold and the silver and all the vessels that were found in in the house of God, with the servant of Edom, and the treasuries of the house of the king, and the children as insurance,
and he returned to Samaria.
47
5
וַיְחִ֨י אֲמַצְיָ֤הוּ בֶן־יוֹאָשׁ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֔ה אַחֲרֵ֣י מ֔וֹת יוֹאָ֥שׁ בֶּן־יְהוֹאָחָ֖ז מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
חֲמֵ֥שׁ עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה שָׁנָֽה
25 And Amaziah child of Joash king of Judah lived after the death of Joash child of Jehoahaz king of Israel,
fifteen years.
30
6
וְיֶ֙תֶר֙ דִּבְרֵ֣י אֲמַצְיָ֔הוּ הָרִאשֹׁנִ֖ים וְהָאַחֲרוֹנִ֑ים
הֲלֹא֙ הִנָּ֣ם כְּתוּבִ֔ים עַל־סֵ֥פֶר מַלְכֵי־יְהוּדָ֖ה וְיִשְׂרָאֵֽל
26 And the remaining words of Amaziah the former and the latter,
are not, behold, they written in the record of the kings of Judah and Israel.
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19
וּמֵעֵ֗ת אֲשֶׁר־סָ֤ר אֲמַצְיָ֙הוּ֙ מֵאַחֲרֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וַיִּקְשְׁר֨וּ עָלָ֥יו קֶ֛שֶׁר בִּירוּשָׁלִַ֖ם וַיָּ֣נָס לָכִ֑ישָׁה
וַיִּשְׁלְח֤וּ אַחֲרָיו֙ לָכִ֔ישָׁה וַיְמִיתֻ֖הוּ שָֽׁם
27 And from the time that Amaziah turned aside from following Yahweh, they colluded against him collusion in Jerusalem and he withdrew towards Lachish,
but they sent after him towards Lachish and put him to death there.
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15
וַיִּשָּׂאֻ֖הוּ עַל־הַסּוּסִ֑ים
וַֽיִּקְבְּר֥וּ אֹת֛וֹ עִם־אֲבֹתָ֖יו בְּעִ֥יר יְהוּדָֽה
28 And they bore him on the horses,
and they entombed him with his ancestors in the city of Judah.
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