Saturday, March 21, 2020

A SimHebrew experiment

This is not translation but a consonant by consonant transcription to enable more efficient technical communication.

I had written a transcription algorithm 10 years ago and in a few hours was able to tweak it to do SimHebrew. See this paper by Jonathan Orr-Stav for the details of what SimHebrew is designed for and its relationship to the evolution of alphabets. The mapping is implicit in this image.
The mapping from Hebrew square text to Latin for SimHebrew
SimHebrew has a number of differences from a straight translation of consonants. It uses an escaped 't' for ט with single quote as the escape character. It also requires the letters u and o for vav's that act as vowels. These could not be distinguished with automation without the following vowel in the text. This underlines the importance of coding sequence when transcribing a manuscript from Hebrew. It would be consonant, marks affecting the consonant like dagesh, then vowel, then accents. I would never expect more than one vowel per consonant, but more than one accent is fine.

In the process of investigating this I found some oddball coding of a diphthong in two instances of the Hebrew text. These are Lam 3:25 לְקוָֹ֔ו and Isaiah 49:23 קוָֹֽי. I don't know what this is so I put a question on the Tiberian Hebrew forum to see what they might say.

A few things I have noted about the limitations of Unicode for Biblical Hebrew:
  • It does not distinguish silluq, metheg, and ga'ya as noted in a discussion here.
  • And in the exercise I just did for fun yesterday, it fails to distinguish between dagesh, mappiq and shuruq.
To me these are curiosities only, but they did raise questions which I added to the forum on Tiberian Hebrew.

To test my theory of coding sequences, here is an example from Psalms 18:1. 

L 1500 patah 1463 M 1502 sheva 1456 N 1504 patah 1463 Ts 1510 dagesh 1468 tsere 1461 mapakh 1444 chet 1495 patah 1463
לַמְנַצֵּ֤חַ 

The pattern of consonant, vowel, music is followed. (Painful - won't do any more of this - but I could write a program to test my data for exceptions. I would find plenty in the NT sections where I do not expect to be continuing any Hebrew transcriptions.)

This is the SimHebrew for the Psalm, transcription bugs removed I hope. (I have no intention of doing this again but it would be fun to interpret the music as punctuation etc!) Note the 'a' is א. Not a vowel. [During this pandemic after a walk, I did add the music here and it is potentially useful in some ways.]
Psalms 18 Fn Min Max Syll Avg S/N
לַמְנַצֵּ֤חַ ׀ לְעֶ֥בֶד יְהוָ֗ה לְדָ֫וִ֥ד
אֲשֶׁ֤ר דִּבֶּ֨ר ׀ לַיהוָ֗ה אֶת־דִּ֭בְרֵי הַשִּׁירָ֣ה הַזֹּ֑את
בְּי֤וֹם הִֽצִּיל־יְהוָ֘ה אוֹת֥וֹ מִכַּ֥ף כָּל־אֹ֝יְבָ֗יו וּמִיַּ֥ד שָׁאֽוּל
1 lmnxk | lybd ihvh ldvd
awr dbr | lihvh at-dbri hwirh hzat
bivm hxil-ihvh avtv mcf cl-aibiv umid waul
[For the leader. Of a servant of Yahweh. Of David,
who spoke to Yahweh the words of this particular song,
in the day Yahweh delivered him from the slap of all his enemies and from the hand of Saul.]
3e 4C 12
14
18
4
וַיֹּאמַ֡ר אֶרְחָמְךָ֖ יְהוָ֣ה חִזְקִֽי 2 viamr arkmc ihvh kzqi
[and he said, I am passionate about you, Yahweh, my courage.]
3e 4B 10 2.5
יְהוָ֤ה ׀ סַֽלְעִ֥י וּמְצוּדָתִ֗י וּמְפַ֫לְטִ֥י
אֵלִ֣י צ֭וּרִי אֶֽחֱסֶה־בּ֑וֹ
מָֽגִנִּ֥י וְקֶֽרֶן־יִ֝שְׁעִ֗י מִשְׂגַּבִּֽי
3 ihvh | slyi umxudti umpl'ti
ali xuri aksh-bv
mgni vqrn-iwyi mwgbi
[Yahweh my cliff, and my fortress and my security,
my God my rock. I will take refuge in him.
My shield and the horn of my salvation, my retreat.]
3e 4C 11
8
11
2.73
מְ֭הֻלָּל אֶקְרָ֣א יְהוָ֑ה
וּמִן־אֹ֝יְבַ֗י אִוָּשֵֽׁעַ
4 g mhll aqra ihvh
umn-aibi auwy
[Praising I will call Yahweh,
and from my enemies I will be saved.

]
3e 4B 7
8
3.75
אֲפָפ֥וּנִי חֶבְלֵי־מָ֑וֶת
וְֽנַחֲלֵ֖י בְלִיַּ֣עַל יְבַֽעֲתֽוּנִי
5 appuni kbli-mvt
vnkli bliyl ibytuni
[Enveloping me were death pangs,
and torrents of worthlessness alarmed me.]
3e 4B 7
13
2.86
חֶבְלֵ֣י שְׁא֣וֹל סְבָב֑וּנִי
קִ֝דְּמ֗וּנִי מ֣וֹקְשֵׁי מָֽוֶת
6 kbli wavl sbbuni
qdmuni mvqwi mvt
[The pangs of the grave surrounded me.
Confronting me were death traps.]
3e 4B 8
7
3
בַּצַּר־לִ֤י ׀ אֶֽקְרָ֣א יְהוָה֮ וְאֶל־אֱלֹהַ֪י אֲשַׁ֫וֵּ֥עַ
יִשְׁמַ֣ע מֵהֵיכָל֣וֹ קוֹלִ֑י
וְ֝שַׁוְעָתִ֗י לְפָנָ֤יו ׀ תָּב֬וֹא בְאָזְנָֽיו
7 bxr-li | aqra ihvh val-alhi awuy
iwmy mhiclv qvli
vwvyti lpniv | tbva bazniv
[In my straits I call upon Yahweh and to my God I cry for help.
He hears from his temple my voice,
and my cry to his face comes into his ears.

]
3d 4C 16
8
12
3.6
וַתִּגְעַ֬שׁ וַתִּרְעַ֨שׁ ׀ הָאָ֗רֶץ וּמוֹסְדֵ֣י הָרִ֣ים יִרְגָּ֑זוּ
וַ֝יִּתְגָּֽעֲשׁ֗וּ כִּי־חָ֥רָה לֽוֹ
8 vtgyw vtryw | harx umvsdi hrim irgzu
vitgywu ci-krh lv
[And the earth shakes and quakes, and the foundations of the hills shudder,
and are shaken for he was burning with anger.]
3e 4B 17
8
4.17
עָ֘לָ֤ה עָשָׁ֨ן ׀ בְּאַפּ֗וֹ וְאֵשׁ־מִפִּ֥יו תֹּאכֵ֑ל
גֶּ֝חָלִ֗ים בָּעֲר֥וּ מִמֶּֽנּוּ
9 ~ ylh ywn | bapv vaw-mpiv tacl
gklim byru mmnu
[A smoke ascends in his nostrils and fire from his mouth devours.
Coals were kindled from it.]
3e 4C 13
9
4.4
וַיֵּ֣ט שָׁ֭מַיִם וַיֵּרַ֑ד
וַ֝עֲרָפֶ֗ל תַּ֣חַת רַגְלָֽיו
10 vi't wmim vird
vyrpl tkt rgliv
[And he bends heavens and descends,
with dark turbulence under his feet.]
3e 4B 7
8
2.5
וַיִּרְכַּ֣ב עַל־כְּ֭רוּב וַיָּעֹ֑ף
וַ֝יֵּ֗דֶא עַל־כַּנְפֵי־רֽוּחַ
11 vircb yl-crub viyf
vida yl-cnpi-ruk
[And he rides on a cherub and he flies.
And he darts on the wings of the wind.]
3e 4B 9
7
3.2
יָ֤שֶׁת חֹ֨שֶׁךְ ׀ סִתְר֗וֹ סְבִֽיבוֹתָ֥יו סֻכָּת֑וֹ
חֶשְׁכַת־מַ֝֗יִם עָבֵ֥י שְׁחָקִֽים
12 C iwt kwc | strv sbibvtiv sctv
kwct-mim ybi wkqim
[He sets darkness his hiding place, round about him his booth,
dark waters, thick clouds of the skies.

]
3e 4C 13
8
3.5
מִנֹּ֗גַהּ נֶ֫גְדּ֥וֹ עָבָ֥יו עָבְר֑וּ
בָּ֝רָ֗ד וְגַֽחֲלֵי־אֵֽשׁ
13 mngh ngdv ybiv ybru
brd vgkli-aw
[From the luminous before him his thick clouds passed by,
hail and coals of fire.]
3e 4A 9
7
4
וַיַּרְעֵ֬ם בַּשָּׁמַ֨יִם ׀ יְֽהוָ֗ה וְ֭עֶלְיוֹן יִתֵּ֣ן קֹל֑וֹ
בָּ֝רָ֗ד וְגַֽחֲלֵי־אֵֽשׁ
14 virym bwmim | ihvh vylivn itn qlv
brd vgkli-aw
[And Yahweh thunders in the heavens, and the Most High gives his voice,
hail and coals of fire.]
3e 4B 15
7
4.4
וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח חִ֭צָּיו וַיְפִיצֵ֑ם
וּבְרָקִ֥ים רָ֝ב וַיְהֻמֵּֽם
15 viwlk kxiv vipixm
ubrqim rb vihmm
[And he sends his arrows and disperses them.
And lightnings he multiplies and confuses them.]
3e 4B 8
7
2.5
וַיֵּ֤רָא֨וּ ׀ אֲפִ֥יקֵי מַ֗יִם וַֽיִּגָּלוּ֮ מוֹסְד֪וֹת תֵּ֫בֵ֥ל
מִגַּעֲרָ֣תְךָ֣ יְהוָ֑ה
מִ֝נִּשְׁמַ֗ת ר֣וּחַ אַפֶּֽךָ
16 virau | apiqi mim viglu mvsdvt tbl
mgyrtc ihvh
mnwmt ruk apc
[Then seen are channels of waters, and discovered are the foundations of the world,
at your rebuke Yahweh,
at the breath of the wind of your nostrils.

]
3d 4C 16
7
8
3.1
יִשְׁלַ֣ח מִ֭מָּרוֹם יִקָּחֵ֑נִי
יַֽ֝מְשֵׁ֗נִי מִמַּ֥יִם רַבִּֽים
17 iwlk mmrvm iqkni
imwni mmim rbim
[He will send from on high. He will take me.
He will draw me out from many waters.]
3e 4B 9
7
2.29
יַצִּילֵ֗נִי מֵאֹיְבִ֥י עָ֑ז
וּ֝מִשֹּׂנְאַ֗י כִּֽי־אָמְצ֥וּ מִמֶּֽנִּי
18 ixilni maibi yz
umwnai ci-amxu mmni
[He will deliver me from my strong enemy,
and from those hating me, for they are more assured than I.]
3e 4A 8
10
3
יְקַדְּמ֥וּנִי בְיוֹם־אֵידִ֑י
וַֽיְהִי־יְהוָ֖ה לְמִשְׁעָ֣ן לִֽי
19 iqdmuni bivm-aidi
vihi-ihvh lmwyn li
[They will confront me in the day of my misfortune,
but Yahweh becomes my staff.

]
3e 4B 8
9
2.43
וַיּוֹצִיאֵ֥נִי לַמֶּרְחָ֑ב
יְ֝חַלְּצֵ֗נִי כִּ֘י חָ֥פֵֽץ בִּֽי
20 vivxiani lmrkb
iklxni ci kpx bi
[He has brought me out into a spacious room.
He will rescue me for he delighted in me.]
3e 4A 8
8
3.2
יִגְמְלֵ֣נִי יְהוָ֣ה כְּצִדְקִ֑י
כְּבֹ֥ר יָ֝דַ֗י יָשִׁ֥יב לִֽי
21 igmlni ihvh cxdqi
cbr idi iwib li
[Yahweh will reward me for my righteousness,
for the purity of my hands he will turn to me.]
3e 4B 9
7
3.2
כִּֽי־שָׁ֭מַרְתִּי דַּרְכֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
וְלֹֽא־רָ֝שַׁ֗עְתִּי מֵאֱלֹהָֽי
22 ci-wmrti drci ihvh
vla-rwyti malhi
[For I have kept the ways of Yahweh,
and I have not been wicked with my God.]
3e 4B 7
8
3
כִּ֣י כָל־מִשְׁפָּטָ֣יו לְנֶגְדִּ֑י
וְ֝חֻקֹּתָ֗יו לֹא־אָסִ֥יר מֶֽנִּי
23 B ci cl-mwp'tiv lngdi
vkqtiv la-asir mni
[For all his judgments are before me,
and his statutes I will not put aside from me.]
3e 4B 8
8
4
וָאֱהִ֣י תָמִ֣ים עִמּ֑וֹ
וָ֝אֶשְׁתַּמֵּ֗ר מֵעֲוֺנִֽי
24 vahi tmim ymv
vawtmr myoni
[And I am complete with him,
and I have kept myself from my iniquity.]
3e 4B 7
8
3.75
וַיָּֽשֶׁב־יְהוָ֣ה לִ֣י כְצִדְקִ֑י
כְּבֹ֥ר יָ֝דַ֗י לְנֶ֣גֶד עֵינָֽיו
25 viwb-ihvh li cxdqi
cbr idi lngd yiniv
[And Yahweh turned to me for my righteousness,
for the purity of my hands before his eyes.

]
3e 4B 9
9
3
עִם־חָסִ֥יד תִּתְחַסָּ֑ד
עִם־גְּבַ֥ר תָּ֝מִ֗ים תִּתַּמָּֽם
26 ym-ksid ttksd
ym-gbr tmim ttmm
[With one who is kind you show yourself kind.
With one who prevails complete you show yourself complete.]
3e 4A 6
8
2.8
עִם־נָבָ֥ר תִּתְבָּרָ֑ר
וְעִם־עִ֝קֵּ֗שׁ תִּתְפַּתָּֽל
27 ym-nbr ttbrr
vym-yqw ttptl
[With the pure you show yourself pure,
and with the devious you show yourself tortuous.

]
3e 4A 6
7
3.25
כִּֽי־אַ֭תָּה עַם־עָנִ֣י תוֹשִׁ֑יעַ
וְעֵינַ֖יִם רָמ֣וֹת תַּשְׁפִּֽיל
28 ci-ath ym-yni tvwiy
vyinim rmvt twpil
[For you yourself an impoverished people will save,
and eyes exalted you will humble.]
3e 4B 8
7
2.14
כִּֽי־אַ֭תָּה תָּאִ֣יר נֵרִ֑י
יְהוָ֥ה אֱ֝לֹהַ֗י יַגִּ֥יהַּ חָשְׁכִּֽי
29 ci-ath tair nri
ihvh alhi igih kwci
[For you yourself will light my lamp.
Yahweh my God will illuminate my darkness.]
3e 4B 6
10
2.67
כִּֽי־בְ֭ךָ אָרֻ֣ץ גְּד֑וּד
וּ֝בֵֽאלֹהַ֗י אֲדַלֶּג־שֽׁוּר
30 ci-bc arx gdud
ubalhi adlg-wur
[For in you I have raced a raiding party,
and in my God I have leapt a barrier.

]
3e 4B 7
8
3
הָאֵל֮ תָּמִ֪ים דַּ֫רְכּ֥וֹ
אִמְרַֽת־יְהוָ֥ה צְרוּפָ֑ה
מָגֵ֥ן ה֝֗וּא לְכֹ֤ל ׀ הַחֹסִ֬ים בּֽוֹ
31 hal tmim drcv
amrt-ihvh xruph
mgn hua lcl | hksim bv
[This God, his way is complete,
the promise of Yahweh refined.
He is a shield to all who take refuge in him.]
3d 4C 6
7
9
2.44
כִּ֤י מִ֣י אֱ֭לוֹהַּ מִבַּלְעֲדֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
וּמִ֥י צ֝֗וּר זוּלָתִ֥י אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ
32 C ci mi alvh mblydi ihvh
umi xur zulti alhinu
[For who is God apart from Yahweh?
And who a rock except our God?]
3e 4C 11
10
3
הָ֭אֵל הַמְאַזְּרֵ֣נִי חָ֑יִל
וַיִּתֵּ֖ן תָּמִ֣ים דַּרְכִּֽי
33 g hal hmazrni kil
vitn tmim drci
[This God girds me in force,
and he gives the completeness of my way,

]
3e 4B 8
7
2.5
מְשַׁוֶּ֣ה רַ֭גְלַי כָּאַיָּל֑וֹת
וְעַ֥ל בָּ֝מֹתַ֗י יַעֲמִידֵֽנִי
34 mwuh rgli cailvt
vyl bmti iymidni
[making my feet resemble the hart,
and on my high places he stands me,]
3e 4B 9
10
3.17
מְלַמֵּ֣ד יָ֭דַי לַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה
וְֽנִחֲתָ֥ה קֶֽשֶׁת־נְ֝חוּשָׁ֗ה זְרוֹעֹתָֽי
35 mlmd idi lmlkmh
vnkth qwt-nkuwh zrvyti
[in teaching my hands to war,
and he has pinned brazen bow by my arms.]
3e 4B 9
13
3.14
וַתִּתֶּן־לִי֮ מָגֵ֪ן יִ֫שְׁעֶ֥ךָ
וִֽימִינְךָ֥ תִסְעָדֵ֑נִי
וְֽעַנְוַתְךָ֥ תַרְבֵּֽנִי
36 vttn-li mgn iwyc
viminc tsydni
vynvtc trbni
[And you gave me the shield of your salvation,
and your right hand confirms me,
and your gentleness gives me increase.]
3d 4A 9
7
7
2.56
תַּרְחִ֣יב צַעֲדִ֣י תַחְתָּ֑י
וְלֹ֥א מָ֝עֲד֗וּ קַרְסֻלָּֽי
37 trkib xydi tkti
vla mydu qrsli
[You will broaden my paces under me,
lest my ankles be unstable.

]
3e 4B 7
8
3
אֶרְדּ֣וֹף א֭וֹיְבַי וְאַשִּׂיגֵ֑ם
וְלֹֽא־אָ֝שׁוּב עַד־כַּלּוֹתָֽם
38 ardvf avibi vawigm
vla-awub yd-clvtm
[I will pursue my enemies and will overtake them,
and I will not turn back until they are finished.]
3e 4B 8
7
3
אֶ֭מְחָצֵם וְלֹא־יֻ֣כְלוּ ק֑וּם
יִ֝פְּל֗וּ תַּ֣חַת רַגְלָֽי
39 g amkxm vla-iclu qum
iplu tkt rgli
[I will wound them and they will not be able to arise.
They will fall under my feet.]
3e 4B 8
6
2.8
וַתְּאַזְּרֵ֣נִי חַ֭יִל לַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה
תַּכְרִ֖יעַ קָמַ֣י תַּחְתָּֽי
40 vtazrni kil lmlkmh
tcriy qmi tkti
[And you will gird me with force for the war.
Those arising against me, you will bow down under me.

]
3e 4B 10
7
2.43
וְֽאֹיְבַ֗י נָתַ֣תָּה לִּ֣י עֹ֑רֶף
וּ֝מְשַׂנְאַ֗י אַצְמִיתֵֽם
41 vaibi ntth li yrf
umwnai axmitm
[And the nape of my enemies you have given to me.
And those hating me, I will annihilate them.]
3e 4B 9
6
3.75
יְשַׁוְּע֥וּ וְאֵין־מוֹשִׁ֑יעַ
עַל־יְ֝הוָ֗ה וְלֹ֣א עָנָֽם
42 iwuyu vain-mvwiy
yl-ihvh vla ynm
[They will cry for help and there is no salvation,
to Yahweh and he did not answer them.]
3e 4B 8
7
3
וְֽאֶשְׁחָקֵ֗ם כְּעָפָ֥ר עַל־פְּנֵי־ר֑וּחַ
כְּטִ֖יט חוּצ֣וֹת אֲרִיקֵֽם
43 vawkqm cypr yl-pni-ruk
c'ti't kuxvt ariqm
[And I pulverized them like dust in the face of a wind,
as dirt of the streets I did away with them.

]
3e 4B 11
7
3
תְּפַלְּטֵנִי֮ מֵרִ֪יבֵ֫י עָ֥ם
תְּ֭שִׂימֵנִי לְרֹ֣אשׁ גּוֹיִ֑ם
עַ֖ם לֹא־יָדַ֣עְתִּי יַֽעַבְדֽוּנִי
44 tpl'tni mribi ym
twimni lraw gvim
ym la-idyti iybduni
[You will secure me in the disputes of the people.
You will set me up as the beginning of nations.
A people I did not know will serve me.]
3d 4B 8
8
8
2.67
לְשֵׁ֣מַֽע אֹ֭זֶן יִשָּׁ֣מְעוּ לִ֑י
בְּנֵֽי־נֵ֝כָ֗ר יְכַחֲשׁוּ־לִֽי
45 lwmy azn iwmyu li
bni-ncr ickwu-li
[Hearing by ear they will hear of me.
The children of the alien cringe to me.]
3e 4B 9
8
2.43
בְּנֵי־נֵכָ֥ר יִבֹּ֑לוּ
וְ֝יַחְרְג֗וּ מִֽמִּסְגְּרֽוֹתֵיהֶֽם
46 bni-ncr iblu
vikrgu mmsgrvtihm
[The children of the alien will wither,
no longer at ease from within their prisons.

]
3e 4A 6
10
4
חַי־יְ֭הוָה וּבָר֣וּךְ צוּרִ֑י
וְ֝יָר֗וּם אֱלוֹהֵ֥י יִשְׁעִֽי
47 ki-ihvh ubruc xuri
virum alvhi iwyi
[Yahweh lives and blessed is my rock.
The God of my salvation will be exalted.]
3e 4B 9
8
2.83
הָאֵ֗ל הַנּוֹתֵ֣ן נְקָמ֣וֹת לִ֑י
וַיַּדְבֵּ֖ר עַמִּ֣ים תַּחְתָּֽי
48 hal hnvtn nqmvt li
vidbr ymim tkti
[This God gives my vengeance,
and he subjugates peoples under me.]
3e 4B 9
7
2.67
מְפַלְּטִ֗י מֵאֹ֫יְבָ֥י
אַ֣ף מִן־קָ֭מַי תְּרוֹמְמֵ֑נִי
מֵאִ֥ישׁ חָ֝מָ֗ס תַּצִּילֵֽנִי
49 mpl'ti maibi
af mn-qmi trvmmni
maiw kms txilni
[He secures me from my enemies.
Indeed from those arising against me you will exalt me.
From a violent person you will deliver me.

]
3e 4B 6
8
8
3.14
עַל־כֵּ֤ן ׀ אוֹדְךָ֖ בַגּוֹיִ֥ם ׀ יְהוָ֑ה
וּלְשִׁמְךָ֥ אֲזַמֵּֽרָה
50 yl-cn | avdc bgvim | ihvh
ulwmc azmrh
[Therefore I will give you thanks among the nations Yahweh,
and to your name I will sing a psalm,]
3e 4C 9
7
2.29
מַגְדִּיל֮ יְשׁוּע֪וֹת מַ֫לְכּ֥וֹ
וְעֹ֤שֶׂה חֶ֨סֶד ׀ לִמְשִׁיח֗וֹ לְדָוִ֥ד וּלְזַרְע֗וֹ עַד־עוֹלָֽם
51 mgdil iwuyvt mlcv
vywh ksd | lmwikv ldvd ulzryv yd-yvlm
[for the one who magnifies the victories of his king,
and does kindness for his anointed, for David and his seed for evermore.]
3d 4C 7
17
4


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