Tuesday, October 4, 2016

Genesis 19


Genesis 19
וַ֠יָּבֹאוּ שְׁנֵ֨י הַמַּלְאָכִ֤ים סְדֹ֙מָה֙ בָּעֶ֔רֶב וְל֖וֹט יֹשֵׁ֣ב בְּשַֽׁעַר־סְדֹ֑ם
וַיַּרְא־לוֹט֙ וַיָּ֣קָם לִקְרָאתָ֔ם וַיִּשְׁתַּ֥חוּ אַפַּ֖יִם אָֽרְצָה
1 And two messengers came towards Sodom in the evening,and Lot was seated at the gate of Sodom,
and Lot stared and arose to encounter them, and he prostrated himself, nostrils earthward.
24
18
וַיֹּ֜אמֶר הִנֶּ֣ה נָּא־אֲדֹנַ֗י ס֣וּרוּ נָ֠א אֶל־בֵּ֨ית עַבְדְּכֶ֤ם וְלִ֙ינוּ֙ וְרַחֲצ֣וּ רַגְלֵיכֶ֔ם וְהִשְׁכַּמְתֶּ֖ם וַהֲלַכְתֶּ֣ם לְדַרְכְּכֶ֑ם
וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ לֹּ֔א כִּ֥י בָרְח֖וֹב נָלִֽין
2 And he said, Behold, if you will, my Lord. Turn aside, if you will, to the house of your servant, and stop over and wash your feet, and rise early and go your way.
And they said, No. For in the plaza, we will stop over.
39
9
וַיִּפְצַר־בָּ֣ם מְאֹ֔ד וַיָּסֻ֣רוּ אֵלָ֔יו וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ אֶל־בֵּית֑וֹ
וַיַּ֤עַשׂ לָהֶם֙ מִשְׁתֶּ֔ה וּמַצּ֥וֹת אָפָ֖ה וַיֹּאכֵֽלוּ
3 And he urged them much and they turned aside to him and they came to his house.
And he made for them a party. Unleavened bread he baked, and they ate.
18
16
טֶרֶם֮ יִשְׁכָּבוּ֒ וְאַנְשֵׁ֨י הָעִ֜יר אַנְשֵׁ֤י סְדֹם֙ נָסַ֣בּוּ עַל־הַבַּ֔יִת מִנַּ֖עַר וְעַד־זָקֵ֑ן
כָּל־הָעָ֖ם מִקָּצֶֽה
4 Before the mortals of the city lay down, the incurables of Sodom surrounded the house,
youngster and to the elderly, all the people from the extremes.
28
6
וַיִּקְרְא֤וּ אֶל־לוֹט֙ וַיֹּ֣אמְרוּ ל֔וֹ אַיֵּ֧ה הָאֲנָשִׁ֛ים אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֥אוּ אֵלֶ֖יךָ הַלָּ֑יְלָה
הוֹצִיאֵ֣ם אֵלֵ֔ינוּ וְנֵדְעָ֖ה אֹתָֽם
5 And they called out to Lot and they said to him where are the persons that came to you tonight bring them out to us to know them. 26
11
וַיֵּצֵ֧א אֲלֵהֶ֛ם ל֖וֹט הַפֶּ֑תְחָה
וְהַדֶּ֖לֶת סָגַ֥ר אַחֲרָֽיו
6 And Lot went out the door to them,
and the gateway he latched after him.
10
9
וַיֹּאמַ֑ר
אַל־נָ֥א אַחַ֖י תָּרֵֽעוּ
7 And he said,
Please, my kin, do not do evil.
3
7
הִנֵּה־נָ֨א לִ֜י שְׁתֵּ֣י בָנ֗וֹת אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־יָדְעוּ֙ אִ֔ישׁ אוֹצִֽיאָה־נָּ֤א אֶתְהֶן֙ אֲלֵיכֶ֔ם וַעֲשׂ֣וּ לָהֶ֔ן כַּטּ֖וֹב בְּעֵינֵיכֶ֑ם
רַ֠ק לָֽאֲנָשִׁ֤ים הָאֵל֙ אַל־תַּעֲשׂ֣וּ דָבָ֔ר כִּֽי־עַל־כֵּ֥ן בָּ֖אוּ בְּצֵ֥ל קֹרָתִֽי
8 Behold, if you will, to me are two daughters who have not known a man. Let me please bring them out to you and do to them as is good in your sight.
Certainly to the men, the God, you will not do a thing, for so they came into the shadow of my rafters.
34
23
וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ ׀ גֶּשׁ־הָ֗לְאָה וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ הָאֶחָ֤ד בָּֽא־לָגוּר֙ וַיִּשְׁפֹּ֣ט שָׁפ֔וֹט עַתָּ֕ה נָרַ֥ע לְךָ֖ מֵהֶ֑ם
וַיִּפְצְר֨וּ בָאִ֤ישׁ בְּלוֹט֙ מְאֹ֔ד וַֽיִּגְּשׁ֖וּ לִשְׁבֹּ֥ר הַדָּֽלֶת
9 And they said, Come close here. And they said, The first is come to reside and be judge and judging, now we will do injury to you from them.
And they urged much on the man, on Lot, and they came close to breaking the gateway.
28
18
וַיִּשְׁלְח֤וּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁים֙ אֶת־יָדָ֔ם וַיָּבִ֧יאוּ אֶת־ל֛וֹט אֲלֵיהֶ֖ם הַבָּ֑יְתָה
וְאֶת־הַדֶּ֖לֶת סָגָֽרוּ
10 But the men extended their hands and they brought Lot to them towards the house.
And the gateway they latched.
23
8
וְֽאֶת־הָאֲנָשִׁ֞ים אֲשֶׁר־פֶּ֣תַח הַבַּ֗יִת הִכּוּ֙ בַּסַּנְוֵרִ֔ים מִקָּטֹ֖ן וְעַד־גָּד֑וֹל
וַיִּלְא֖וּ לִמְצֹ֥א הַפָּֽתַח
11 And the persons that were at the door of the house they struck with bewilderment from the least and to the greatest,
and they were exasperated to find the door.
26
8
וַיֹּאמְר֨וּ הָאֲנָשִׁ֜ים אֶל־ל֗וֹט עֹ֚ד מִֽי־לְךָ֣ פֹ֔ה חָתָן֙ וּבָנֶ֣יךָ וּבְנֹתֶ֔יךָ וְכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־לְךָ֖ בָּעִ֑יר
הוֹצֵ֖א מִן־הַמָּקֽוֹם
12 And the men said to Lot, who of yours is yet here, in-laws or your sons or your daughters or any that are yours in the city?
Bring them out from the place.
32
6
כִּֽי־מַשְׁחִתִ֣ים אֲנַ֔חְנוּ אֶת־הַמָּק֖וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה
כִּֽי־גָֽדְלָ֤ה צַעֲקָתָם֙ אֶת־פְּנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וַיְשַׁלְּחֵ֥נוּ יְהוָ֖ה לְשַׁחֲתָֽהּ
13 For we are to destroy this place,
for great is their outcry before Yahweh and Yahweh sent us to destroy.
13
22
וַיֵּצֵ֨א ל֜וֹט וַיְדַבֵּ֣ר ׀ אֶל־חֲתָנָ֣יו ׀ לֹקְחֵ֣י בְנֹתָ֗יו וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ ק֤וּמוּ צְּאוּ֙ מִן־הַמָּק֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה כִּֽי־מַשְׁחִ֥ית יְהוָ֖ה אֶת־הָעִ֑יר
וַיְהִ֥י כִמְצַחֵ֖ק בְּעֵינֵ֥י חֲתָנָֽיו
14 And Lot went out and he spoke to his in-laws that had taken his daughters, and he said, Arise. Go forth from this place, for Yahweh is about to destroy the city.
But he was as one joking in the eyes of his in-laws.
37
11
וּכְמוֹ֙ הַשַּׁ֣חַר עָלָ֔ה וַיָּאִ֥יצוּ הַמַּלְאָכִ֖ים בְּל֣וֹט לֵאמֹ֑ר
קוּם֩ קַ֨ח אֶֽת־אִשְׁתְּךָ֜ וְאֶת־שְׁתֵּ֤י בְנֹתֶ֙יךָ֙ הַנִּמְצָאֹ֔ת פֶּן־תִּסָּפֶ֖ה בַּעֲוֺ֥ן הָעִֽיר
15 And as the dawn came up and the messengers importuned on Lot, and said,
Arise. Take your wife and your two daughters that have been found, lest you be snatched in the iniquity of the city.
19
27
וַֽיִּתְמַהְמָ֓הּ ׀ וַיַּחֲזִ֨קוּ הָאֲנָשִׁ֜ים בְּיָד֣וֹ וּבְיַד־אִשְׁתּ֗וֹ וּבְיַד֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י בְנֹתָ֔יו בְּחֶמְלַ֥ת יְהוָ֖ה עָלָ֑יו
וַיֹּצִאֻ֥הוּ וַיַּנִּחֻ֖הוּ מִח֥וּץ לָעִֽיר
16 And he was lingering, and the men were resolute by his hand and by the hand of his wife and by the hands of his two daughters, with the pity of Yahweh upon him,
and they brought him out and they left him outside of the city.
34
14
וַיְהִי֩ כְהוֹצִיאָ֨ם אֹתָ֜ם הַח֗וּצָה וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הִמָּלֵ֣ט עַל־נַפְשֶׁ֔ךָ אַל־תַּבִּ֣יט אַחֲרֶ֔יךָ וְאַֽל־תַּעֲמֹ֖ד בְּכָל־הַכִּכָּ֑ר
הָהָ֥רָה הִמָּלֵ֖ט פֶּן־תִּסָּפֶֽה
17 And it was when they had brought them out, them outside, that he said, Escape for your self. Do not let yourself take note behind you, and do not stand anywhere in the basin.
Towards the hill escape, lest you be snatched.
38
10
וַיֹּ֥אמֶר ל֖וֹט אֲלֵהֶ֑ם
אַל־נָ֖א אֲדֹנָֽי
18 And said Lot to them,
No, please, my Lord,
7
5
הִנֵּה־נָ֠א מָצָ֨א עַבְדְּךָ֣ חֵן֮ בְּעֵינֶיךָ֒ וַתַּגְדֵּ֣ל חַסְדְּךָ֗ אֲשֶׁ֤ר עָשִׂ֙יתָ֙ עִמָּדִ֔י לְהַחֲי֖וֹת אֶת־נַפְשִׁ֑י
וְאָנֹכִ֗י לֹ֤א אוּכַל֙ לְהִמָּלֵ֣ט הָהָ֔רָה פֶּן־תִּדְבָּקַ֥נִי הָרָעָ֖ה וָמַֽתִּי
19 Behold may your servant find grace in your eyes. You have magnified your mercy in what you have done for me to keep me alive,
but myself I will not endure the escape to the hill, lest the evil cling to me and I die.
34
25
הִנֵּה־נָ֠א הָעִ֨יר הַזֹּ֧את קְרֹבָ֛ה לָנ֥וּס שָׁ֖מָּה וְהִ֣יא מִצְעָ֑ר
אִמָּלְטָ֨ה נָּ֜א שָׁ֗מָּה הֲלֹ֥א מִצְעָ֛ר הִ֖וא וּתְחִ֥י נַפְשִֽׁי
20 Behold, if you will, this city is near to withdraw to. There, and it is small.
Let me escape, if you will, there. (Is it not small?) And I will continue to live.
18
15
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֔יו הִנֵּה֙ נָשָׂ֣אתִי פָנֶ֔יךָ גַּ֖ם לַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה
לְבִלְתִּ֛י הָפְכִּ֥י אֶת־הָעִ֖יר אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּֽרְתָּ
21 And he said to him, Behold I will lift up your face also in this matter,
so I will not overturn the city of which you speak.
19
13
מַהֵר֙ הִמָּלֵ֣ט שָׁ֔מָּה כִּ֣י לֹ֤א אוּכַל֙ לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת דָּבָ֔ר עַד־בֹּאֲךָ֖ שָׁ֑מָּה
עַל־כֵּ֛ן קָרָ֥א שֵׁם־הָעִ֖יר צֽוֹעַר
22 Swiftly escape thereto, for I am not able to do a thing until your coming there.
Therefore he called the name of the city Small.
21
9
הַשֶּׁ֖מֶשׁ יָצָ֣א עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וְל֖וֹט בָּ֥א צֹֽעֲרָה
23 The sun came out over the earth,
and Lot came towards Small.
9
6
וַֽיהוָ֗ה הִמְטִ֧יר עַל־סְדֹ֛ם וְעַל־עֲמֹרָ֖ה גָּפְרִ֣ית וָאֵ֑שׁ
מֵאֵ֥ת יְהוָ֖ה מִן־הַשָּׁמָֽיִם
24 But Yahweh made it rain over Sodom and over Gomorrah, pitch and fire,
from Yahweh, from the heavens.
16
9
וַֽיַּהֲפֹךְ֙ אֶת־הֶעָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔ל וְאֵ֖ת כָּל־הַכִּכָּ֑ר
וְאֵת֙ כָּל־יֹשְׁבֵ֣י הֶעָרִ֔ים וְצֶ֖מַח הָאֲדָמָֽה
25 And the God overturned the cities and all the basin,
and all the inhabitants of the cities, and what grew on the ground.
16
15
וַתַּבֵּ֥ט אִשְׁתּ֖וֹ מֵאַחֲרָ֑יו
וַתְּהִ֖י נְצִ֥יב מֶֽלַח
26 And his wife took note what was behind him,
and she became a monument of salt.
9
6
וַיַּשְׁכֵּ֥ם אַבְרָהָ֖ם בַּבֹּ֑קֶר
אֶל־הַ֨מָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁר־עָ֥מַד שָׁ֖ם אֶת־פְּנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה
27 And rose up early Abraham in the morning,
to the place where he stood before Yahweh.
9
14
וַיַּשְׁקֵ֗ף עַל־פְּנֵ֤י סְדֹם֙ וַעֲמֹרָ֔ה וְעַֽל־כָּל־פְּנֵ֖י אֶ֣רֶץ הַכִּכָּ֑ר
וַיַּ֗רְא וְהִנֵּ֤ה עָלָה֙ קִיטֹ֣ר הָאָ֔רֶץ כְּקִיטֹ֖ר הַכִּבְשָֽׁן
28 And he leaned over to look in the face of Sodom and Gomorrah and over all the face of the land of the basin.
And he stared, and behold, burning smoke went up from the land as the burning smoke of a kiln.
22
18
וַיְהִ֗י בְּשַׁחֵ֤ת אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־עָרֵ֣י הַכִּכָּ֔ר וַיִּזְכֹּ֥ר אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־אַבְרָהָ֑ם
וַיְשַׁלַּ֤ח אֶת־לוֹט֙ מִתּ֣וֹךְ הַהֲפֵכָ֔ה בַּהֲפֹךְ֙ אֶת־הֶ֣עָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־יָשַׁ֥ב בָּהֵ֖ן לֽוֹט
29 And it happened when God destroyed the cities of the basin, that God remembered Abraham,
and he sent Lot out of the midst of the overturning, when he overturned the cities where seated in them was Lot.
24
25
וַיַּעַל֩ ל֨וֹט מִצּ֜וֹעַר וַיֵּ֣שֶׁב בָּהָ֗ר וּשְׁתֵּ֤י בְנֹתָיו֙ עִמּ֔וֹ כִּ֥י יָרֵ֖א לָשֶׁ֣בֶת בְּצ֑וֹעַר
וַיֵּ֙שֶׁב֙ בַּמְּעָרָ֔ה ה֖וּא וּשְׁתֵּ֥י בְנֹתָֽיו
30 And Lot went up from Small and settled on the hill and his two daughters with him for the he feared to settle in Small,
so he settled in the cave, he and his two daughters.
28
12
וַתֹּ֧אמֶר הַבְּכִירָ֛ה אֶל־הַצְּעִירָ֖ה אָבִ֣ינוּ זָקֵ֑ן
וְאִ֨ישׁ אֵ֤ין בָּאָ֙רֶץ֙ לָב֣וֹא עָלֵ֔ינוּ כְּדֶ֖רֶךְ כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ
31 And the firstborn said to the smaller, Our father is elderly,
and there is no one else in the earth to enter into us in the way of all the earth.
15
18
לְכָ֨ה נַשְׁקֶ֧ה אֶת־אָבִ֛ינוּ יַ֖יִן וְנִשְׁכְּבָ֣ה עִמּ֑וֹ
וּנְחַיֶּ֥ה מֵאָבִ֖ינוּ זָֽרַע
32 Come, let us assault our father with wine, and we will lie together with him,
and we will keep alive seed from our father.
15
9
וַתַּשְׁקֶ֧יןָ אֶת־אֲבִיהֶ֛ן יַ֖יִן בַּלַּ֣יְלָה ה֑וּא
וַתָּבֹ֤א הַבְּכִירָה֙ וַתִּשְׁכַּ֣ב אֶת־אָבִ֔יהָ וְלֹֽא־יָדַ֥ע בְּשִׁכְבָ֖הּ וּבְקׄוּמָֽהּ
33 And they assaulted their father with wine in that night.
And the firstborn came and lay down with her father, and nothing he knew of her lying down or her arising.
13
22
וַֽיְהִי֙ מִֽמָּחֳרָ֔ת וַתֹּ֤אמֶר הַבְּכִירָה֙ אֶל־הַצְּעִירָ֔ה הֵן־שָׁכַ֥בְתִּי אֶ֖מֶשׁ אֶת־אָבִ֑י
נַשְׁקֶ֨נּוּ יַ֜יִן גַּם־הַלַּ֗יְלָה וּבֹ֙אִי֙ שִׁכְבִ֣י עִמּ֔וֹ וּנְחַיֶּ֥ה מֵאָבִ֖ינוּ זָֽרַע
34 And it happened afterwards that the firstborn said to the smaller, Lo I lay down last night with my father.
Let us assault him with wine also tonight, and you go in and lie down with him, and we will keep alive seed from our father.
25
24
וַתַּשְׁקֶ֜יןָ גַּ֣ם בַּלַּ֧יְלָה הַה֛וּא אֶת־אֲבִיהֶ֖ן יָ֑יִן
וַתָּ֤קָם הַצְּעִירָה֙ וַתִּשְׁכַּ֣ב עִמּ֔וֹ וְלֹֽא־יָדַ֥ע בְּשִׁכְבָ֖הּ וּבְקֻמָֽהּ
35 And they assaulted also in that night their father with wine.
And the smaller arose and lay down with him and nothing he knew of her lying down or her arising.
16
20
וַֽתַּהֲרֶ֛יןָ שְׁתֵּ֥י בְנֽוֹת־ל֖וֹט מֵאֲבִיהֶֽן 36 So the two daughters of Lot became pregnant from their father. 14
וַתֵּ֤לֶד הַבְּכִירָה֙ בֵּ֔ן וַתִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ מוֹאָ֑ב
ה֥וּא אֲבִֽי־מוֹאָ֖ב עַד־הַיּֽוֹם
37 And she gave birth to the firstborn, a son, and she called his name Moab.
He is the father of Moab until today.
14
7
וְהַצְּעִירָ֤ה גַם־הִוא֙ יָ֣לְדָה בֵּ֔ן וַתִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ בֶּן־עַמִּ֑י
ה֛וּא אֲבִ֥י בְנֵֽי־עַמּ֖וֹן עַד־הַיּֽוֹם
38 And the smaller also herself gave birth to a son, and she called his name a son of my people.
He is the father of the children of Amon until today.
17
9

v1 Lot could be interpreted as worshiping these messengers or angels. Nostrils earthward is perhaps too literal. :)

v2 in the plaza, רחב, a very positive word suggesting wide open space. Under the stars perhaps, unconstrained by human habitation, unafraid of potential danger, or just 'on the street'.

v5 Now everyone knows this story, eh?  But what if the tables were turned? What if these were not in fact strangers? But the very God that we have known, raped, and cast off.

v6-7 Lot leaves himself no escape. Clearly he knows this crowd or if he fears for his life, he is willing to give it to protect his guests. His 'kin' are not necessarily relations of the flesh. Brother, sister appear to have been used similarly then as today.

The God האל or these אלה? It is a play on letters perhaps. The smaller (can't ignore the sound play - of course it is zoar in the Hebrew).

Small = Zoar. Some of these verses are really awkward. How do you catch the ultimate emphasis on Lot in v29 as its last word? With some delay even in English.

Assault - it was already in my glossary for this root and it fits the bill here.

See also this article here on this incident "For all Lot knows, the sons born to his daughters are children of the Sodomite men who had married his daughters."

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