Wednesday, July 8, 2015

Qohelet 9

נַ֥חַת לָזֶ֖ה מִזֶּֽה

What is this נחת? [See the excellent answer in the comment]

Can anyone help me with H5181,2,and 3? Why are these considered 'different' words. They have various glosses. Looks to me like complete guesswork. One example is below, verse 17. No idea what it 'means'.

My Latin Hebrew concordance only lists it once under ִיחת. It must have it somewhere else but I don't know how to find it! [perhaps under נחה] The book is alphabetic but there is only the one version of the word in that book. It is a fascinating volume for me. I should have lived in the 16th century under the tutelage of Erasmus - then I would have had to learn my Latin properly.

The Brown Driver Briggs has several historical glosses for these letters and it appears the Hebrew letters have several homonyms: pin, penetrate, rest quietness, descend, be deposed, broken, etc.

The stem occurs three times in Qohelet, the one above (6:5) and 4:6 ט֕וֹב מְלֹ֥א כַ֖ף נָ֑חַת and 9:17, דִּבְרֵ֣י חֲכָמִ֔ים בְּנַ֖חַת נִשְׁמָעִ֑ים

The other word spelled the same in its canonical form is in the psalms and there is a third word spelled the same that is in Ezra and Daniel - probably Aramaic. But it has the same gloss (descend) as one of its Hebrew doubles.
This is quite a chapter - focussing on eventual death - like we all must in some sense.
כִּ֣י אֶת־כָּל־זֶ֞ה נָתַ֤תִּי אֶל־לִבִּי֙ וְלָב֣וּר אֶת־כָּל־זֶ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר הַצַּדִּיקִ֧ים וְהַחֲכָמִ֛ים וַעֲבָדֵיהֶ֖ם בְּיַ֣ד הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים
גַּֽם־אַהֲבָ֣ה גַם־שִׂנְאָ֗ה אֵ֤ין יוֹדֵ֙עַ֙ הָֽאָדָ֔ם הַכֹּ֖ל לִפְנֵיהֶֽם
1Because all this I gave to my heart and to bore into all this, that the righteous and the shrewd and their service, are in the hand of this God.
Neither love nor hate does the earthling know of the whole of what is in their faces.
38
19
61
32
הַכֹּ֞ל כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר לַכֹּ֗ל מִקְרֶ֨ה אֶחָ֜ד לַצַּדִּ֤יק וְלָרָשָׁע֙ לַטּוֹב֙ וְלַטָּה֣וֹר וְלַטָּמֵ֔א וְלַזֹּבֵ֔חַ וְלַאֲשֶׁ֖ר אֵינֶ֣נּוּ זֹבֵ֑חַ
כַּטּוֹב֙ כַּֽחֹטֶ֔א הַנִּשְׁבָּ֕ע כַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר שְׁבוּעָ֥ה יָרֵֽא
2Everything is as it is for everyone, one event: to the righteous one and to the wicked one, to the good and to the clean and to the unclean, and to one that offers and to one for whom there is no offering,
as good so sinner, the one who swears an oath, so the one that fears an oath.
43
16
60
25
זֶ֣ה ׀ רָ֗ע בְּכֹ֤ל אֲשֶֽׁר־נַעֲשָׂה֙ תַּ֣חַת הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ כִּֽי־מִקְרֶ֥ה אֶחָ֖ד לַכֹּ֑ל
וְגַ֣ם לֵ֣ב בְּֽנֵי־הָ֠אָדָם מָלֵא־רָ֨ע וְהוֹלֵל֤וֹת בִּלְבָבָם֙ בְּחַיֵּיהֶ֔ם וְאַחֲרָ֖יו אֶל־הַמֵּתִֽים
3This is an evil in all that is done, under the sun, for one event is for all
and even the heart of the children of the earthling is filled with evil, and boasting is in their heart in their lives and after it, to death.
21
29
33
48
כִּי־מִי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יְחֻבַּ֔ר אֶ֥ל כָּל־הַחַיִּ֖ים יֵ֣שׁ בִּטָּח֑וֹן
כִּֽי־לְכֶ֤לֶב חַי֙ ה֣וּא ט֔וֹב מִן־הָאַרְיֵ֖ה הַמֵּֽת
4For who that is companion to all the living is there to trust?
for to a dog living it is good, compared to the lion that is dead.
16
13
27
24
כִּ֧י הַֽחַיִּ֛ים יוֹדְעִ֖ים שֶׁיָּמֻ֑תוּ
וְהַמֵּתִ֞ים אֵינָ֧ם יוֹדְעִ֣ים מְא֗וּמָה וְאֵֽין־ע֤וֹד לָהֶם֙ שָׂכָ֔ר כִּ֥י נִשְׁכַּ֖ח זִכְרָֽם
5For the living have a clue that they will die, but of the dead, they have no clue whatever,
and there is no wage for them any more, for their remembrance is forgotten.
10
23
18
44
גַּ֣ם אַהֲבָתָ֧ם גַּם־שִׂנְאָתָ֛ם גַּם־קִנְאָתָ֖ם כְּבָ֣ר אָבָ֑דָה
וְחֵ֨לֶק אֵין־לָהֶ֥ם עוֹד֙ לְעוֹלָ֔ם בְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶֽׁר־נַעֲשָׂ֖ה תַּ֥חַת הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ
6Even their love, even their hatred, even their envy is already perished,
and there is no share for them any more, in all that is done, under the sun.
18
22
28
35
לֵ֣ךְ אֱכֹ֤ל בְּשִׂמְחָה֙ לַחְמֶ֔ךָ וּֽשֲׁתֵ֥ה בְלֶב־ט֖וֹב יֵינֶ֑ךָ
כִּ֣י כְבָ֔ר רָצָ֥ה הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶֽת־מַעֲשֶֽׂיךָ
7Go, eat your bread in gladness and imbibe in a good heart your wine,
for already this God accepts your deeds.
18
14
28
21
בְּכָל־עֵ֕ת יִהְי֥וּ בְגָדֶ֖יךָ לְבָנִ֑ים
וְשֶׁ֖מֶן עַל־רֹאשְׁךָ֥ אַל־יֶחְסָֽר
8In all time, let your garments be white,
and oil on your head let it not be lacking.
12
10
19
16
רְאֵ֨ה חַיִּ֜ים עִם־אִשָּׁ֣ה אֲשֶׁר־אָהַ֗בְתָּ כָּל־יְמֵי֙ חַיֵּ֣י הֶבְלֶ֔ךָ אֲשֶׁ֤ר נָֽתַן־לְךָ֙ תַּ֣חַת הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֣י הֶבְלֶ֑ךָ
כִּ֣י ה֤וּא חֶלְקְךָ֙ בַּֽחַיִּ֔ים וּבַעֲמָ֣לְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֥ה עָמֵ֖ל תַּ֥חַת הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ
9See life with a wife that you have loved all the days of the life of your futility that he has given to you under the sun, all the days of your futility,
for it is your share in life and in your toil that is you, toil, under the sun.
37
24
55
36
כֹּ֠ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּמְצָ֧א יָֽדְךָ֛ לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת בְּכֹחֲךָ֖ עֲשֵׂ֑ה
כִּי֩ אֵ֨ין מַעֲשֶׂ֤ה וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן֙ וְדַ֣עַת וְחָכְמָ֔ה בִּשְׁא֕וֹל אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתָּ֖ה הֹלֵ֥ךְ שָֽׁמָּה ס
10All that you find to your hand to do, in your power do,
for there is no deed or reason or knowledge or shrewdness in the grave thereto where you yourself are going. S
16
25
24
42
שַׁ֜בְתִּי וְרָאֹ֣ה תַֽחַת־הַשֶּׁ֗מֶשׁ כִּ֣י לֹא֩ לַקַּלִּ֨ים הַמֵּר֜וֹץ וְלֹ֧א לַגִּבּוֹרִ֣ים הַמִּלְחָמָ֗ה וְ֠גַם לֹ֣א לַחֲכָמִ֥ים לֶ֙חֶם֙ וְגַ֨ם לֹ֤א לַנְּבֹנִים֙ עֹ֔שֶׁר וְגַ֛ם לֹ֥א לַיֹּדְעִ֖ים חֵ֑ן
כִּי־עֵ֥ת וָפֶ֖גַע יִקְרֶ֥ה אֶת־כֻּלָּֽם
11I turned and saw, under the sun, and not to the slight is the race, and not to the valiant is the battle, and even not to the shrewd is the bread, and even not to the understanding is riches and even not to the knowledgeable is graciousness,
for time and force eventually meet them all.
52
10
86
17
כִּ֡י גַּם֩ לֹֽא־יֵדַ֨ע הָאָדָ֜ם אֶת־עִתּ֗וֹ כַּדָּגִים֙ שֶׁנֶּֽאֱחָזִים֙ בִּמְצוֹדָ֣ה רָעָ֔ה וְכַ֨צִּפֳּרִ֔ים הָאֲחֻז֖וֹת בַּפָּ֑ח
כָּהֵ֗ם יֽוּקָשִׁים֙ בְּנֵ֣י הָֽאָדָ֔ם לְעֵ֣ת רָעָ֔ה כְּשֶׁתִּפּ֥וֹל עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם פִּתְאֹֽם
12For even the earthling does not know its time. As fish that are held fast in an evil fortress and as birds that are held fast in the snare,
as with them, trapped are the children of the earthling in the time of evil, as it falls on them suddenly.
35
23
55
37
גַּם־זֹ֛ה רָאִ֥יתִי חָכְמָ֖ה תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ
וּגְדוֹלָ֥ה הִ֖יא אֵלָֽי
13Even this I have seen, shrewdness, under the sun
and she herself was magnified for me.
12
6
20
12
עִ֣יר קְטַנָּ֔ה וַאֲנָשִׁ֥ים בָּ֖הּ מְעָ֑ט
וּבָֽא־אֵלֶ֜יהָ מֶ֤לֶךְ גָּדוֹל֙ וְסָבַ֣ב אֹתָ֔הּ וּבָנָ֥ה עָלֶ֖יהָ מְצוֹדִ֥ים גְּדֹלִֽים
14A tiny city and a few mortals in her
and a great king came to her and he circled her and built on her a great fortress.
11
26
18
40
וּמָ֣צָא בָ֗הּ אִ֤ישׁ מִסְכֵּן֙ חָכָ֔ם וּמִלַּט־ה֥וּא אֶת־הָעִ֖יר בְּחָכְמָת֑וֹ
וְאָדָם֙ לֹ֣א זָכַ֔ר אֶת־הָאִ֥ישׁ הַמִּסְכֵּ֖ן הַהּֽוּא
15And was found in her, there was a shrewd destitute, and it was an escape for the city in his shrewdness,
and no human remembered the person, this destitute.
20
14
35
24
וְאָמַ֣רְתִּי אָ֔נִי טוֹבָ֥ה חָכְמָ֖ה מִגְּבוּרָ֑ה
וְחָכְמַ֤ת הַמִּסְכֵּן֙ בְּזוּיָ֔ה וּדְבָרָ֖יו אֵינָ֥ם נִשְׁמָעִֽים
16And I myself said, Good is shrewdness over valour
but the shrewdness of the destitute is despised and his words, there is no hearing them.
13
17
23
31
דִּבְרֵ֣י חֲכָמִ֔ים בְּנַ֖חַת נִשְׁמָעִ֑ים
מִזַּעֲקַ֥ת מוֹשֵׁ֖ל בַּכְּסִילִֽים
17The words of the shrewd pinned down are heard
over the appeal of a proverb among dullards.
11
9
19
16
טוֹבָה חָכְמָה מִכְּלֵי קְרָב
וְחוֹטֶא אֶחָד יְאַבֵּד טוֹבָה הַרְבֵּה
18Good is shrewdness over instruments of close combat
but one sin will make much good perish.
8
12
15
20


1 comment:

  1. In case you wondered more about how to read this word (and it seems it is only one word), a friend who translates professionally gave me this answer that links the two sets of glosses quite understandably.

    As a verb, the emphasis is on the last syllable, and it means "to land down"—usually with force. One might say, for example,

    הוא ירגישו את נחת זרועי

    Means, "He will feel the weight of my arm [as I smite him]". It's a very Thor-like word.

    It also means "to land" in the sense of a bird or an airplane.

    As a noun, נחת, the emphasis is on the first syllable, and it has either of two meanings. One is "contentment", "satisfaction" -- in Yiddish it is rendered nahas, and is frequently cited by Jewish mothers whose sons have just become doctors... The second is when preceded by the prefix ב, whereupon it means "at leisure" or "quietly" , so Qohelet 9:17 means "The words of wise men are heard in tranquillity over those of the head of fools". On its own, more often than not it appears in conjunction with the verb לרוות, i.e. "to drink one's fill".

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