Thursday, July 2, 2015

A reading of Leviticus 1 - new ground

This is new ground for me. Much to see and learn. "Blood-sacrifice is an aspect of atonement, a surprise in the heart of God." Seen from the Street (Kindle Locations 182-183).

Verse 1 begins with a pause (שֶׁ֑) on Moses. The ^ under the shin is the signal for a pause. It is the atnach, a rest on the sub-dominant. You can see the music here. Note that who called is not stated. Leviticus is intimately connected to the prior book. The antecedent of he ִin he called is in the last verse of Exodus.

Many synonyms for lamb are required to distinguish differing Hebrew words, כבש, כשב, probably the same word but letters transposed, שה, and a couple of times טלה. I have been forced into adjectives to manage these differences. English does not have multiple words for lamb.
וַיִּקְרָ֖א אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֑ה
וַיְדַבֵּ֤ר יְהוָה֙ אֵלָ֔יו מֵאֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵ֖ד לֵאמֹֽר
1And he called to Moses,
and Yahweh spoke to him from the tent of engagement saying,
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דַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם אָדָ֗ם כִּֽי־יַקְרִ֥יב מִכֶּ֛ם קָרְבָּ֖ן לַֽיהוָ֑ה
מִן־הַבְּהֵמָ֗ה מִן־הַבָּקָר֙ וּמִן־הַצֹּ֔אן תַּקְרִ֖יבוּ אֶת־קָרְבַּנְכֶֽם
2Speak to the children of Israel and say to them, A human that approaches from you with an oblation for Yahweh,
from the cattle, from the oxen, or from the flock, you will approach with your oblation.
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אִם־עֹלָ֤ה קָרְבָּנוֹ֙ מִן־הַבָּקָ֔ר זָכָ֥ר תָּמִ֖ים יַקְרִיבֶ֑נּוּ
אֶל־פֶּ֝תַח‬ אֹ֤הֶל מוֹעֵד֙ יַקְרִ֣יב אֹת֔וֹ לִרְצֹנ֖וֹ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה
3If his oblation is a burnt offering from the oxen, a complete male let him bring near him.
To the door of the tent of engagement he will approach with it, for its acceptance in the presence of Yahweh.
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וְסָמַ֣ךְ יָד֔וֹ עַ֖ל רֹ֣אשׁ הָעֹלָ֑ה
וְנִרְצָ֥ה ל֖וֹ לְכַפֵּ֥ר עָלָֽיו
4And let him support his hand on the head of the burnt offering
and it will be accepted for him, a cover-price on him.
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וְשָׁחַ֛ט אֶת־בֶּ֥ן הַבָּקָ֖ר לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
וְ֠הִקְרִיבוּ בְּנֵ֨י אַהֲרֹ֤ן הַֽכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ אֶת־הַדָּ֔ם וְזָרְק֨וּ אֶת־הַדָּ֤ם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֙חַ֙ סָבִ֔יב אֲשֶׁר־פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד
5And he will butcher the oxen child in the presence of Yahweh
and the children of Aaron, the priests, will bring the blood near and will dash the blood round about on the altar that is at the door of the tent of engagement.
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וְהִפְשִׁ֖יט אֶת־הָעֹלָ֑ה
וְנִתַּ֥ח אֹתָ֖הּ לִנְתָחֶֽיהָ
6And he will strip the skin of the burnt offering
and will cut her piece by piece into her pieces.
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וְ֠נָתְנוּ בְּנֵ֨י אַהֲרֹ֧ן הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֵ֖שׁ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ
וְעָרְכ֥וּ עֵצִ֖ים עַל־הָאֵֽשׁ
7And the children of Aaron the priest, will give fire on the altar
and arrange the trees on the fire.
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וְעָרְכ֗וּ בְּנֵ֤י אַהֲרֹן֙ הַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים אֵ֚ת הַנְּתָחִ֔ים אֶת־הָרֹ֖אשׁ וְאֶת־הַפָּ֑דֶר
עַל־הָעֵצִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הָאֵ֔שׁ אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ
8And the children of Aaron, the priests, will arrange the pieces with the head and the suet
on the trees that are on the fire that are on the altar.
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וְקִרְבּ֥וֹ וּכְרָעָ֖יו יִרְחַ֣ץ בַּמָּ֑יִם
וְהִקְטִ֨יר הַכֹּהֵ֤ן אֶת־הַכֹּל֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עֹלָ֛ה אִשֵּׁ֥ה רֵֽיחַ־נִיח֖וֹחַ לַֽיהוָֽה ס
9But its entrails and its limbs he will wash in water.
And the priest will cause it all to burn with smoke toward the altar, a burnt offering by fire, an appeasing smell for Yahweh. S
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וְאִם־מִן־הַצֹּ֨אן קָרְבָּנ֧וֹ מִן־הַכְּשָׂבִ֛ים א֥וֹ מִן־הָעִזִּ֖ים לְעֹלָ֑ה
זָכָ֥ר תָּמִ֖ים יַקְרִיבֶֽנּוּ
10And if his offering is from the flock, from the young lambs or from the she-goats for a burnt offering,
he will bring near him a complete male.
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וְשָׁחַ֨ט אֹת֜וֹ עַ֣ל יֶ֧רֶךְ הַמִּזְבֵּ֛חַ צָפֹ֖נָה לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
וְזָרְק֡וּ בְּנֵי֩ אַהֲרֹ֨ן הַכֹּהֲנִ֧ים אֶת־דָּמ֛וֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב
11And he will butcher it on the northward flank of the altar in the presence of Yahweh.
And the children of Aaron, the priests, will dash the blood round about on the altar.
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וְנִתַּ֤ח אֹתוֹ֙ לִנְתָחָ֔יו וְאֶת־רֹאשׁ֖וֹ וְאֶת־פִּדְר֑וֹ
וְעָרַ֤ךְ הַכֹּהֵן֙ אֹתָ֔ם עַל־הָֽעֵצִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הָאֵ֔שׁ אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ
12And he will cut him piece by piece into his pieces and his head and suet
and the priest will arrange them on the trees that are on the fire that is on the altar.
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וְהַקֶּ֥רֶב וְהַכְּרָעַ֖יִם יִרְחַ֣ץ בַּמָּ֑יִם
וְהִקְרִ֨יב הַכֹּהֵ֤ן אֶת־הַכֹּל֙ וְהִקְטִ֣יר הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עֹלָ֣ה ה֗וּא אִשֵּׁ֛ה רֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַיהוָֽה פ
13But its entrails and its limbs he will wash in water.
And the priest will bring it all near and will cause it to burn with smoke toward the altar. It is a burnt offering by fire, an appeasing smell for Yahweh. P
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וְאִ֧ם מִן־הָע֛וֹף עֹלָ֥ה קָרְבָּנ֖וֹ לַֽיהוָ֑ה
וְהִקְרִ֣יב מִן־הַתֹּרִ֗ים א֛וֹ מִן־בְּנֵ֥י הַיּוֹנָ֖ה אֶת־קָרְבָּנֽוֹ
14And if a burnt offering from the fowl is an oblation for Yahweh,
then he will bring near his oblation from the turtledoves or from the squab of the dove.
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וְהִקְרִיב֤וֹ הַכֹּהֵן֙ אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ וּמָלַק֙ אֶת־רֹאשׁ֔וֹ וְהִקְטִ֖יר הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חָה
וְנִמְצָ֣ה דָמ֔וֹ עַ֖ל קִ֥יר הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ
15And the priest will bring it near to the altar and wring off its head and will cause it to burn with smoke toward the altar.
And its blood will be pressed out on the sidewall of the altar.
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וְהֵסִ֥יר אֶת־מֻרְאָת֖וֹ בְּנֹצָתָ֑הּ
וְהִשְׁלִ֨יךְ אֹתָ֜הּ אֵ֤צֶל הַמִּזְבֵּ֙חַ֙ קֵ֔דְמָה אֶל־מְק֖וֹם הַדָּֽשֶׁן
16And he will put aside its crop with its plumage
and cast it next to the altar eastward to the place of the fat.
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וְשִׁסַּ֨ע אֹת֣וֹ בִכְנָפָיו֮ לֹ֣א יַבְדִּיל֒ וְהִקְטִ֨יר אֹת֤וֹ הַכֹּהֵן֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עַל־הָעֵצִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הָאֵ֑שׁ
עֹלָ֣ה ה֗וּא אִשֵּׁ֛ה רֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַיהוָֽה ס
17And he will spread it out by its wings. He will not differentiate. And the priest will cause it to burn with smoke toward the altar on the trees that are on the fire. It is a burnt offering made by fire,
an appeasing smell for Yahweh. S
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The chapter divides in 3 depending on the type of animal offered. Note how late in the verse the pause may occur (marked by a carriage return). Pause when reading when you come to it so that you may consider the words to that point in the verse.

In the last verse, the word for differentiate is the word used to separate light from darkness the waters above and waters below and the day and night in Genesis 1. This is not to be done to the bird. Rather the wings are spread out but the carcass is not broken. What is the significance of this loaded word of creation when applied to the offering of the bird?

The words of the rubric of sacrifice are carefully chosen, as it is with the building of the tabernacle in Exodus (still to come and that new ground also).


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