Friday, August 26, 2016

An insight from the Raw Data of the Old Testament

What did I think I was faced with as the raw data of the writing that Christendom calls the Old Testament? I remember being told that ancient Manuscripts of the Hebrew texts were consonants only without vowels or punctuation.

I was also told that there were no spaces and no lower case letters. These are somewhat oversimplified statements. It is true that there are no lower case letters. It is true that there are no dots and dashes to show the later tradition of vowels, but there are several consonants that act like vowels in some situations.

Also I was told that there was no verb for our common 'to be'. That is a false statement. But there are many sentences in the text where the verb 'to be' is implied. This is true in other Semitic languages like Arabic. One just says for instance, My name Bob.

Here's a bit of raw data, a verse from the great Isaiah scroll from the Dead Sea Scrolls, picked at random. My first impression of this site is that it has some very creative technical work and is nicely curated. (I remember visiting the scroll in 2010 but I didn't have time for close examination.)

The Great Isaiah Scroll, Isaiah 1:28
Surprise! It is clear that there are spaces between words and also paragraphs in this manuscript.

This verse promising the shattering of transgressions and sins is between the marks I made on the ms.

I find scrolls hard to read and hard to see, but they look familiar. I wonder what happened to the divine name in this verse - must look further. (Anyone know?)

I am more familiar with the Aleppo codex (800 years later than the great Isaiah scroll) and the Unicode text (c 2010) of the Leningrad codex (itself 200 years later than the Aleppo codex).
The Aleppo Codex, Isaiah 1:28

What we see in the Aleppo codex is that the spaces have disappeared but in effect they are replaced by accents. And since part of my set of outstanding questions is 'where did the accents come from', they must have been included early in this copying tradition or the potential for confusion of words would have been severe.

The verse is in the box. Can you find it? The clue to look for is the silluq (vertical line under the syllable) showing the end of the prior verse בִּצְדָקָֽה and the end of the verse we are looking for.

Here is the Leningrad text of Isaiah 1:28:
 וְשֶׁ֧בֶר פֹּשְׁעִ֛ים וְחַטָּאִ֖ים יַחְדָּ֑ו וְעֹזְבֵ֥י יְהוָ֖ה יִכְלֽוּ׃
Here we see that the 'big colon', (red) the sof passuk, is not in use in the Aleppo Codex or the Great Isaiah Scroll, but the short vertical stroke below the last syllable of a verse, the silluq, (לֽ)is there in the Aleppo Codex to distinguish final cadences. (This mark is also used for a completely different purpose in later manuscripts where it is called a metheg. The metheg disturbs the musical line and is in no way equivalent to the silluq.)

It would seem that the accents are required much more than the vowels once the spaces are removed from the text. Here is the music for this verse.
The interpretation of the accents, Isaiah 1:28
The text is printed over each change in note showing the double use of the music for both word and sentence phrasing. The atnah (the A in the music) divides the verse.

I sketched a query against my data - not conclusive - but I think I can say that there is at least one syllable-stress marked for every 'word' in the text. Sometimes it is the same accent as on the prior word to keep the music on the same reciting note. Note some 'words' without accents are joined to another word by a hyphen (called a maqqep) effectively treating the combination as one word. The 1900 or so that have fewer accents than words each disappear when I restore the maqqep that I used to remove. Sometimes also there are multiple accents on one word. About 60% of the verses have more accents than words.

So this is my surprising insight today, accents present on every word in the text help identify words when the spaces have disappeared.

I began this post to 'explain' where I began my process of raw data management 10 years ago. I was not expecting to clarify an important point for myself. As a result, it is misleading to say that accents have a role in punctuation. The accents are not punctuation at all. They are for syllable stress and musical phrasing. Secondarily they provide information on distinguishing words in a manuscript where there are no spaces.


What I first did 10 years ago was to code the consonants of the text, as in the Isaiah scroll, word by word in a Latin letter transcription. Given the Unicode mapping, I could easily transform the consonants both ways from Latin letters to Unicode and back again. I also experimented with automated transcription including vowels in those early days after my first full translation of the Psalms.

I first began to work with the Leningrad codex as far back as 2010. I verified my text for the Psalms from it in the period 2010-2013. Eventually I ended up with all the marks, vowels and cantillation, via the publicly available web service on that site. That gives me two approaches to the data, verse by verse in one table, and word by word (consonants only) in another. The manipulation of the data via query and cross-tab is another story. There are some additional posts in the past about the development environment I am using. This one is less than revealing, being full of code, but it is of the essence. The majority of the relevant posts would be under the label reading project status.

Thursday, August 25, 2016

Job 34

Elihu continues his harangue against Job. In the days when I was reading commentaries on Job, I noted from Crenshaw and Edwin Good that scholars are generally negative about this character. (Post from 6 years ago here. I remain largely in agreement with these thoughts about Elihu. He anticipates Christ Jesus and is the means of Job's approach to the confrontation with Yahweh.) My translations are quite different from the ones I did 6 years ago mostly because of error correction with respect to concordance rules that I have developed since that first attempt at this ultimate parable.

I have a lot of questions still about this chapter.

Job 34
וַיַּ֥עַן אֱלִיה֗וּא וַיֹּאמַֽר 1 And Elihu answered and said, 9
שִׁמְע֣וּ חֲכָמִ֣ים מִלָּ֑י
וְ֝יֹדְעִ֗ים הַאֲזִ֥ינוּ לִֽי
2 Hear, you who are wise, my speech,
and you who have knowledge, lend an ear to me.
כִּי־אֹ֭זֶן מִלִּ֣ין תִּבְחָ֑ן
וְ֝חֵ֗ךְ יִטְעַ֥ם לֶאֱכֹֽל
3 For an ear tests speeches,
and a palate tastes food.
מִשְׁפָּ֥ט נִבְחֲרָה־לָּ֑נוּ
נֵדְעָ֖ה בֵינֵ֣ינוּ מַה־טּֽוֹב
4 Judgment let us choose for ourselves.
Let us know among ourselves what is good.
כִּֽי־אָ֭מַר אִיּ֣וֹב צָדַ֑קְתִּי
וְ֝אֵ֗ל הֵסִ֥יר מִשְׁפָּטִֽי
5 For Job said, "I am just,
and the One has turned aside my judgment.
עַל־מִשְׁפָּטִ֥י אֲכַזֵּ֑ב
אָנ֖וּשׁ חִצִּ֣י בְלִי־פָֽשַׁע
6 Against my judgment should I lie?
Mortal is my arrow without transgression."
מִי־גֶ֥בֶר כְּאִיּ֑וֹב
יִֽשְׁתֶּה־לַּ֥עַג כַּמָּֽיִם
7 Who is a valiant one like Job!
Let him imbibe derision like water.
וְאָרַ֣ח לְ֭חֶבְרָה עִם־פֹּ֣עֲלֵי אָ֑וֶן
וְ֝לָלֶ֗כֶת עִם־אַנְשֵׁי־רֶֽשַׁע
8 So let him take a path cobbled together with the workers of mischief,
and let him walk with mortals of wickedness.
כִּֽי־אָ֭מַר לֹ֣א יִסְכָּן־גָּ֑בֶר
בִּ֝רְצֹת֗וֹ עִם־אֱלֹהִֽים
9 For he said, One who is valiant will not be cherished,
that it find favour with God.
לָכֵ֤ן ׀ אַ֥נֲשֵׁ֥י‬ לֵבָ֗ב שִׁמְע֫וּ לִ֥י
חָלִ֖לָה לָאֵ֥ל מֵרֶ֗שַׁע וְשַׁדַּ֥י מֵעָֽוֶל
10 Therefore mortals of heart, hear me:
It is out of the question that the One is wicked, or that the Sufficient is unjust.
כִּ֤י פֹ֣עַל אָ֭דָם יְשַׁלֶּם־ל֑וֹ
וּֽכְאֹ֥רַח אִ֝֗ישׁ יַמְצִאֶֽנּוּ
11 For the work of a human he will repay to it,
and as the path of each, he will let it be found.
אַף־אָמְנָ֗ם אֵ֥ל לֹֽא־יַרְשִׁ֑יעַ
וְ֝שַׁדַּ֗י לֹֽא־יְעַוֵּ֥ת מִשְׁפָּֽט
12 Indeed truly the One does not do wickedness,
and the Sufficient does not subvert judgment.
מִֽי־פָקַ֣ד עָלָ֣יו אָ֑רְצָה
וּמִ֥י שָׂ֝֗ם תֵּבֵ֥ל כֻּלָּֽהּ
13 Who has given visitation rights to him earthward?
And who sets in place the world, all of it?
אִם־יָשִׂ֣ים אֵלָ֣יו לִבּ֑וֹ
רוּח֥וֹ וְ֝נִשְׁמָת֗וֹ אֵלָ֥יו יֶאֱסֹֽף
14 If he sets on him his heart,
his spirit and his breath to him he gathers.
יִגְוַ֣ע כָּל־בָּשָׂ֣ר יָ֑חַד
וְ֝אָדָ֗ם עַל־עָפָ֥ר יָשֽׁוּב
15 All flesh will expire as one,
and a human to dust will return.
וְאִם־בִּ֥ינָה שִׁמְעָה־זֹּ֑את
הַ֝אֲזִ֗ינָה לְק֣וֹל מִלָּֽי
16 And if discerning, you hear this,
give ear to the voice of my speech.
הַאַ֬ף שׂוֹנֵ֣א מִשְׁפָּ֣ט יַחֲב֑וֹשׁ
וְאִם־צַדִּ֖יק כַּבִּ֣יר תַּרְשִֽׁיעַ
17 Indeed will one who hates judgment bind?
and an intense righteous one, will you condemn?
הַאֲמֹ֣ר לְמֶ֣לֶךְ בְּלִיָּ֑עַל
רָ֝שָׁ֗ע אֶל־נְדִיבִֽים
18 Will it say of the king, Worthlessness?
Wickedness, to princes?
אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־נָשָׂ֨א ׀ פְּנֵ֥י שָׂרִ֗ים וְלֹ֣א נִכַּר־שׁ֭וֹעַ‬ לִפְנֵי־דָ֑ל
כִּֽי־מַעֲשֵׂ֖ה יָדָ֣יו כֻּלָּֽם
19 One who is not partial to the presence of nobility and does not recognize special pleading in the presence of the weak,
for all of them are the deed of his hands,
רֶ֤גַע ׀ יָמֻתוּ֮ וַחֲצ֪וֹת לָ֥יְלָה יְגֹעֲשׁ֣וּ עָ֣ם וְיַעֲבֹ֑רוּ
וְיָסִ֥ירוּ אַ֝בִּ֗יר לֹ֣א בְיָֽד
20 In a moment they die, and at midnight people are shaken and they pass over,
and the mighty are turned aside without a hand.
כִּי־עֵ֭ינָיו עַל־דַּרְכֵי־אִ֑ישׁ
וְֽכָל־צְעָדָ֥יו יִרְאֶֽה
21 For his eyes are on the ways of each,
and all his paces he sees.
אֵֽין־חֹ֭שֶׁךְ‬ וְאֵ֣ין צַלְמָ֑וֶת
לְהִסָּ֥תֶר שָׁ֝֗ם פֹּ֣עֲלֵי אָֽוֶן
22 There is no darkness and there is no death-shadow,
where workers of mischief are hidden.
כִּ֤י לֹ֣א עַל־אִ֭ישׁ יָשִׂ֣ים ע֑וֹד
לַהֲלֹ֥ךְ אֶל־אֵ֝֗ל בַּמִּשְׁפָּֽט
23 For not on each will he further set,
than to walk to the One in the judgment
יָרֹ֣עַ כַּבִּירִ֣ים לֹא־חֵ֑קֶר
וַיַּעֲמֵ֖ד אֲחֵרִ֣ים תַּחְתָּֽם
24 He will do evil to the intense with no examination,
and he will install others instead of them.
לָכֵ֗ן יַ֭כִּיר מַעְבָּֽדֵיהֶ֑ם
וְהָ֥פַךְ לַ֝֗יְלָה וְיִדַּכָּֽאוּ
25 Therefore he recognizes their service,
and he overturns by night and they are crushed.
תַּֽחַת־רְשָׁעִ֥ים סְפָקָ֗ם בִּמְק֥וֹם רֹאִֽים 26 Instead of the wicked he cuffs them in the place of those who see. 11
אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־כֵּ֭ן סָ֣רוּ מֵֽאַחֲרָ֑יו
וְכָל־דְּ֝רָכָ֗יו לֹ֣א הִשְׂכִּֽילוּ
27 That they so turned aside from following him,
and into all his ways they did not have insight,
לְהָבִ֣יא עָ֭לָיו צַֽעֲקַת־דָּ֑ל
וְצַעֲקַ֖ת עֲנִיִּ֣ים יִשְׁמָֽע
28 to bring upon him the outcry of the weak,
and the outcry of the poor he hears.
וְה֤וּא יַשְׁקִ֨ט ׀ וּמִ֥י יַרְשִׁ֗עַ וְיַסְתֵּ֣ר פָּ֭נִים וּמִ֣י יְשׁוּרֶ֑נּוּ
וְעַל־גּ֖וֹי וְעַל־אָדָ֣ם יָֽחַד
29 And himself he is quiet, so who makes wickedness? And he hides presence, and who can scrutinize him?
And as for a nation so it is for humanity together.
מִ֭מְּלֹךְ אָדָ֥ם חָנֵ֗ף מִמֹּ֥קְשֵׁי עָֽם 30 From the reign of hypocritical humanity to the entrapment of the people. 10
כִּֽי־אֶל־אֵ֭ל הֶאָמַ֥ר נָשָׂ֗אתִי לֹ֣א אֶחְבֹּֽל 31 For to the One be it said, I have borne. I will not inflict pain. 12
בִּלְעֲדֵ֣י אֶ֭חֱזֶה אַתָּ֣ה הֹרֵ֑נִי
אִֽם־עָ֥וֶל פָּ֝עַ֗לְתִּי לֹ֣א אֹסִֽיף
32 Apart from my gazing, you yourself instruct me.
If injustice I have worked, I will not again.
הַֽמֵעִמְּךָ֬ יְשַׁלְמֶ֨נָּה כִּֽי־מָאַ֗סְתָּ כִּי־אַתָּ֣ה תִבְחַ֣ר וְלֹא־אָ֑נִי
וּֽמַה־יָדַ֥עְתָּ דַבֵּֽר
33 How is it with you? He will repay it for you refused, for yourself, you chose, and not I,
and what do you know? Speak.
אַנְשֵׁ֣י לֵ֭בָב יֹ֣אמְרוּ לִ֑י
וְגֶ֥בֶר חָ֝כָ֗ם שֹׁמֵ֥עַֽ לִֽי
34 Mortals of heart will say to me,
and one who is valiant of wisdom hears me:
אִ֭יּוֹב לֹא־בְדַ֣עַת יְדַבֵּ֑ר
וּ֝דְבָרָ֗יו לֹ֣א בְהַשְׂכֵּֽיל
35 Job without knowledge speaks,
and his words are not with insight.
אָבִ֗י יִבָּחֵ֣ן אִיּ֣וֹב עַד־נֶ֑צַח
עַל־תְּ֝שֻׁבֹ֗ת בְּאַנְשֵׁי־אָֽוֶן
36 My father, Job will be tested for ever in perpetuity
to the turnings in mortals of mischief,
כִּ֥י יֹ֘סִ֤יף עַֽל־חַטָּאת֣וֹ פֶ֭שַׁע בֵּינֵ֣ינוּ יִסְפּ֑וֹק
וְיֶ֖רֶב אֲמָרָ֣יו לָאֵֽל ס
37 For he adds to his sin transgression. Between us is his sharp practice,
and he increases his sayings for the One.

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

Deuteronomy 24

What might we make of Moses' supporting his hand on Joshua? Have you ever thought of 'the laying on of hands' as supporting the elder through the younger? I was surprised to see that phrase 'laid his hands on him' at all in the traditional English of the OT.

I even wonder if this sacramental phrase (the laying on of hands) is perhaps imposed from the confirmation practices that developed over the history of Christendom. I wonder if it could mean quite the opposite of how people read it (tending towards magic).

Perhaps rather than Moses 'passing his powers' onto Joshua, it was Moses delegating tasks to the younger man and thus the lawgiver and prophet is supported by Joshua and Joshua in turn is then able to carry on the work.

The combination of סמך and יד occurs fairly frequently. E.g. Amos 5:19, [As if someone withdraws from the presence of the lion and the bear forces him, or he enters the house and supports his hand on the house wall and the snake takes interest in him.] Psalm 37:24 [For he will not fall thrown down, for Yahweh supports with his hand.] and throughout Leviticus and wherever a sacrifice is required (e.g. 1:24 [And let him support his hand on the head of the burnt offering, and it will be accepted for him, a cover-price on him.]). I have not done Numbers 27 yet where the other use of this phrase is for Moses and Joshua.

Deuteronomy 34
וַיַּ֨עַל מֹשֶׁ֜ה מֵֽעַרְבֹ֤ת מוֹאָב֙ אֶל־הַ֣ר נְב֔וֹ רֹ֚אשׁ הַפִּסְגָּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֣י יְרֵח֑וֹ
וַיַּרְאֵ֨הוּ יְהוָ֧ה אֶת־כָּל־הָאָ֛רֶץ אֶת־הַגִּלְעָ֖ד עַד־דָּֽן
1 And Moses ascended from the steppes of Moab to mount Nebo, the top of Pisgah that faces Jericho.
And Yahweh showed him all the land, the Gilead to Dan,
וְאֵת֙ כָּל־נַפְתָּלִ֔י וְאֶת־אֶ֥רֶץ אֶפְרַ֖יִם וּמְנַשֶּׁ֑ה
וְאֵת֙ כָּל־אֶ֣רֶץ יְהוּדָ֔ה עַ֖ד הַיָּ֥ם הָאַחֲרֽוֹן
2 and all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim and Manasseh,
and all the land of Judah to the other sea,
וְאֶת־הַנֶּ֗גֶב וְֽאֶת־הַכִּכָּ֞ר בִּקְעַ֧ת יְרֵח֛וֹ עִ֥יר הַתְּמָרִ֖ים עַד־צֹֽעַר 3 and the Negeb and the annulus of the crevasse of Jericho, the city of palm trees, to Zoar. 22
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֵלָ֗יו זֹ֤את הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נִ֠שְׁבַּעְתִּי לְאַבְרָהָ֨ם לְיִצְחָ֤ק וּֽלְיַעֲקֹב֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לְזַרְעֲךָ֖ אֶתְּנֶ֑נָּה
הֶרְאִיתִ֣יךָ בְעֵינֶ֔יךָ וְשָׁ֖מָּה לֹ֥א תַעֲבֹֽר
4 And Yahweh said to him, This is the land that I swore to Abraham, to Yitschaq, and to Jacob, saying, To your seed I will give it.
I have let you see with your eyes, but thereto you will not cross over.
וַיָּ֨מָת שָׁ֜ם מֹשֶׁ֧ה עֶֽבֶד־יְהוָ֛ה בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מוֹאָ֖ב עַל־פִּ֥י יְהוָֽה 5 And there died Moses, the servant of Yahweh, in the land of Moab, at the mandate of Yahweh. 19
וַיִּקְבֹּ֨ר אֹת֤וֹ בַגַּיְ֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מוֹאָ֔ב מ֖וּל בֵּ֣ית פְּע֑וֹר
וְלֹֽא־יָדַ֥ע אִישׁ֙ אֶת־קְבֻ֣רָת֔וֹ עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה
6 And he entombed him in the gorge of in the land of Moab in the forefront of Beth-Peor,
but no person knows his tomb to this day.
וּמֹשֶׁ֗ה בֶּן־מֵאָ֧ה וְעֶשְׂרִ֛ים שָׁנָ֖ה בְּמֹת֑וֹ
לֹֽא־כָהֲתָ֥ה עֵינ֖וֹ וְלֹא־נָ֥ס לֵחֹֽה
7 And Moses was a child of a hundred and twenty years at his death.
Not lessened his eye, nor withdrawn his freshness.
וַיִּבְכּוּ֩ בְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֧ל אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֛ה בְּעַֽרְבֹ֥ת מוֹאָ֖ב שְׁלֹשִׁ֣ים י֑וֹם
וַֽיִּתְּמ֔וּ יְמֵ֥י בְכִ֖י אֵ֥בֶל מֹשֶֽׁה
8 And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the steppes of Moab thirty days,
and the days of weeping were completed for the lament for Moses.
וִֽיהוֹשֻׁ֣עַ בִּן־נ֗וּן מָלֵא֙ ר֣וּחַ חָכְמָ֔ה כִּֽי־סָמַ֥ךְ מֹשֶׁ֛ה אֶת־יָדָ֖יו עָלָ֑יו
וַיִּשְׁמְע֨וּ אֵלָ֤יו בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וַֽיַּעֲשׂ֔וּ כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהוָ֖ה אֶת־מֹשֶֽׁה
9 And Joshua child of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom for Moses had supported his hands on him,
and the children of Israel heeded him and they did what Yahweh commanded Moses.
וְלֹֽא־קָ֨ם נָבִ֥יא ע֛וֹד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל כְּמֹשֶׁ֑ה
אֲשֶׁר֙ יְדָע֣וֹ יְהוָ֔ה פָּנִ֖ים אֶל־פָּנִֽים
10 And no prophet has arisen yet in Israel like Moses,
whom Yahweh knew face to face,
לְכָל־הָ֨אֹת֜וֹת וְהַמּוֹפְתִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר שְׁלָחוֹ֙ יְהוָ֔ה לַעֲשׂ֖וֹת בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם
לְפַרְעֹ֥ה וּלְכָל־עֲבָדָ֖יו וּלְכָל־אַרְצֽוֹ
11 for all the signs and portents that Yahweh sent him to do in the land Egypt,
for Pharaoh and for all his servants and for all his land,
וּלְכֹל֙ הַיָּ֣ד הַחֲזָקָ֔ה וּלְכֹ֖ל הַמּוֹרָ֣א הַגָּד֑וֹל
אֲשֶׁר֙ עָשָׂ֣ה מֹשֶׁ֔ה לְעֵינֵ֖י כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
12 and for all the resolute hand and for all the great fear,
which Moses undertook in the sight of all Israel.

Sunday, August 21, 2016

Zechariah 10

Only two more chapters of this one to go! So I did the short one - only 12 verses. I was only at about 36% when I started. I still ponder why some books auto-translate and some don't. Sometimes it is new forms of words that I have not yet encountered.

Not sure what to make of this passage: what role is Ephraim playing in the prophet's mind? They almost seem to be itinerant preachers. This image of wine-soaked is odd, as is the hissing of Yahweh as if a snake. It sounds like a lot of local battles and preparations for battle.

Zechariah 10
שַׁאֲל֨וּ מֵיְהוָ֤ה מָטָר֙ בְּעֵ֣ת מַלְק֔וֹשׁ יְהוָ֖ה עֹשֶׂ֣ה חֲזִיזִ֑ים
וּמְטַר־גֶּ֙שֶׁם֙ יִתֵּ֣ן לָהֶ֔ם לְאִ֖ישׁ עֵ֥שֶׂב בַּשָּׂדֶֽה
1 Ask from Yahweh rain in the time of the maturing rain, Yahweh making thunderbolts,
and rain showers he will give to them, to each one for herbs in the field.
כִּ֧י הַתְּרָפִ֣ים דִּבְּרוּ־אָ֗וֶן וְהַקּֽוֹסְמִים֙ חָ֣זוּ שֶׁ֔קֶר וַֽחֲלֹמוֹת֙ הַשָּׁ֣וא יְדַבֵּ֔רוּ הֶ֖בֶל יְנַֽחֵמ֑וּן
עַל־כֵּן֙ נָסְע֣וּ כְמוֹ־צֹ֔אן יַעֲנ֖וּ כִּֽי־אֵ֥ין רֹעֶֽה פ
2 For the healing images speak mischief, and the soothsayers gaze on falsehood, and dreams of vanity they have spoken. Futility they comfort,
So they pulled out as if sheep. They respond for there is no shepherd.
עַל־הָֽרֹעִים֙ חָרָ֣ה אַפִּ֔י וְעַל־הָעַתּוּדִ֖ים אֶפְק֑וֹד
כִּֽי־פָקַד֩ יְהוָ֨ה צְבָא֤וֹת אֶת־עֶדְרוֹ֙ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית יְהוּדָ֔ה וְשָׂ֣ם אוֹתָ֔ם כְּס֥וּס הוֹד֖וֹ בַּמִּלְחָמָֽה
3 Concerning the shepherds, my anger burns and concerning the goats I visited,
for Yahweh of hosts had visited his troop, the house of Judah, and has set them like a horse, his splendour in the battle.
מִמֶּ֤נּוּ פִנָּה֙ מִמֶּ֣נּוּ יָתֵ֔ד מִמֶּ֖נּוּ קֶ֣שֶׁת מִלְחָמָ֑ה
מִמֶּ֛נּוּ יֵצֵ֥א כָל־נוֹגֵ֖שׂ יַחְדָּֽו
4 From him a corner, from him a tent peg, from him the bow of war,
from him came out every taskmaster as one.
וְהָי֨וּ כְגִבֹּרִ֜ים בּוֹסִ֨ים בְּטִ֤יט חוּצוֹת֙ בַּמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְנִ֨לְחֲמ֔וּ כִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה עִמָּ֑ם
וְהֹבִ֖ישׁוּ רֹכְבֵ֥י סוּסִֽים
5 And they will be as valiant ones who tread down in the mire of the streets in the battle, and they will fight for Yahweh is with them,
and the riders of horses will be shriveled.
וְגִבַּרְתִּ֣י ׀ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית יְהוּדָ֗ה וְאֶת־בֵּ֤ית יוֹסֵף֙ אוֹשִׁ֔יעַ וְהֽוֹשְׁבוֹתִים֙ כִּ֣י רִֽחַמְתִּ֔ים וְהָי֖וּ כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־זְנַחְתִּ֑ים
כִּ֗י אֲנִ֛י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֖ם וְאֶעֱנֵֽם
6 And I will make the house of Judah prevail and the house of Joseph I will save to make them inhabitants, for I will have compassion on them and they will be as though I had not rejected them,
for I am Yahweh their God and I answer them.
וְהָי֤וּ כְגִבּוֹר֙ אֶפְרַ֔יִם וְשָׂמַ֥ח לִבָּ֖ם כְּמוֹ־יָ֑יִן
וּבְנֵיהֶם֙ יִרְא֣וּ וְשָׂמֵ֔חוּ יָגֵ֥ל לִבָּ֖ם בַּיהוָֽה
7 And they of Ephraim as one who prevails, and their heart will be glad as if wine-soaked,
and their children will see and they will be glad. Their heart will rejoice in Yahweh.
אֶשְׁרְקָ֥ה לָהֶ֛ם וַאֲקַבְּצֵ֖ם כִּ֣י פְדִיתִ֑ים
וְרָב֖וּ כְּמ֥וֹ רָבֽוּ
8 I will hiss for them and I will collect them for I have ransomed them,
and they will multiply as they have multiplied.
וְאֶזְרָעֵם֙ בָּֽעַמִּ֔ים וּבַמֶּרְחַקִּ֖ים יִזְכְּר֑וּנִי
וְחָי֥וּ אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶ֖ם וָשָֽׁבוּ
9 And I will sow them among the peoples. In distant places they will remember me,
and they will live with their children and they will return.
וַהֲשִֽׁיבוֹתִים֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם וּמֵֽאַשּׁ֖וּר אֲקַבְּצֵ֑ם
וְאֶל־אֶ֨רֶץ גִּלְעָ֤ד וּלְבָנוֹן֙ אֲבִיאֵ֔ם וְלֹ֥א יִמָּצֵ֖א לָהֶֽם
10 And I will have them return from the land of Egypt. and from Ashur I will collect them,
and to the land of Gilead and Lebanon I will have them come, but naught will be found for them.
וְעָבַ֨ר בַּיָּ֜ם צָרָ֗ה וְהִכָּ֤ה בַיָּם֙ גַּלִּ֔ים וְהֹבִ֕ישׁוּ כֹּ֖ל מְצוּל֣וֹת יְאֹ֑ר
וְהוּרַד֙ גְּא֣וֹן אַשּׁ֔וּר וְשֵׁ֥בֶט מִצְרַ֖יִם יָסֽוּר
11 And he will pass through in the sea of trouble, and will strike waves in the sea and all the depths of the Nile will dry up,
and the pride of Ashur will be brought down, and the sceptre of Egypt will depart.
וְגִבַּרְתִּים֙ בַּֽיהוָ֔ה וּבִשְׁמ֖וֹ יִתְהַלָּ֑כוּ
נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָֽה ס
12 And I will make them prevail in Yahweh and in his name they will walk about,
an oracle of Yahweh.

Saturday, August 20, 2016

Zechariah 9, the famous chapter

Ah gentle reader, I would not want you to think the impoverished king was riding on two animals simultaneously, so I have not translated a vav. Horrors! You omitted a letter! Yes, beloved, because vav is a connector and can 'mean' just about anything the translator chooses to connect words with, even a comma or a space. Contrary to some opinions, the escape from the lunacy of riding two donkeys at once is not an appeal to Hebrew parallelism. It is simply an extra letter.

If you look at the music, you will see a pause in it on ass (חמר) and so time to determine as it passes if it is male or female, and hey, its a boy. Slow down and enjoy the poverty. Notice also the three differing words for said animal.

If I were reading this verse 9 without accents, I would have put more emphasis on the second syllable with a mahpakh, raising it to the high C earlier, but the emphasis of the verse is on the king. The rejoicing (which is a consequence of having an impoverished king) is emphasized by the pairs of parallels. So note the subtlety of these accents that expose meaning by their placement.
And notice where the rest is (the atnah ^). It is on simple stand-alone pronoun, he. In this verse he is saved. Note too how the atnah is in the middle of a sentence. The revia is sufficient to be a sentence closer (.) in the first 'half' of the verse.

In verse 16, it is Yahweh who is the subject of saves. Following the pronouns, I am reading 'the people' who are saved as the 'prisoners of expectation' of verse 12.

Note there is no rest in verse 11, the harrowing of hell is a single act without pause.

There are some shared words in this chapter with Psalm 144, particularly verses 12-14. There is some affinity with Psalm 72 also. The preferential option for the poor is certainly in evidence in both psalms.

Zechariah 9
מַשָּׂ֤א דְבַר־יְהוָה֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ חַדְרָ֔ךְ וְדַמֶּ֖שֶׂק מְנֻחָת֑וֹ
כִּ֤י לַֽיהוָה֙ עֵ֣ין אָדָ֔ם וְכֹ֖ל שִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
1 A load, the matter of Yahweh in the land of Hadrak and Damascus, his resting-place,
for to Yahweh is the eye of an earthling and all the sceptres of Israel.
וְגַם־חֲמָ֖ת תִּגְבָּל־בָּ֑הּ
צֹ֣ר וְצִיד֔וֹן כִּ֥י חָֽכְמָ֖ה מְאֹֽד
2 And also Hamath borders her;
Tyre and Sidon that are very wise.
וַתִּ֥בֶן צֹ֛ר מָצ֖וֹר לָ֑הּ
וַתִּצְבָּר־כֶּ֙סֶף֙ כֶּֽעָפָ֔ר וְחָר֖וּץ כְּטִ֥יט חוּצֽוֹת
3 And Tyre built her fortification
and accumulated silver like dust and bullion as dirt of the streets.
הִנֵּ֤ה אֲדֹנָי֙ יֽוֹרִשֶׁ֔נָּה וְהִכָּ֥ה בַיָּ֖ם חֵילָ֑הּ
וְהִ֖יא בָּאֵ֥שׁ תֵּאָכֵֽל
4 Behold my Lord will possess her and will strike in the sea her wealth,
and she in fire will be devoured.
תֵּרֶ֨א אַשְׁקְל֜וֹן וְתִירָ֗א וְעַזָּה֙ וְתָחִ֣יל מְאֹ֔ד וְעֶקְר֖וֹן כִּֽי־הֹבִ֣ישׁ מֶבָּטָ֑הּ
וְאָ֤בַד מֶ֙לֶךְ֙ מֵֽעַזָּ֔ה וְאַשְׁקְל֖וֹן לֹ֥א תֵשֵֽׁב
5 Askelon will see and fear and Gaza, and will be in much turmoil, and Akron,
because dried up is her notability and perished the king from Gaza, and Ashkelon will not be inhabited.
וְיָשַׁ֥ב מַמְזֵ֖ר בְּאַשְׁדּ֑וֹד
וְהִכְרַתִּ֖י גְּא֥וֹן פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים
6 And a stranger will inhabit Ashdod,
and I will cut off the pride of the Philistines.
וַהֲסִרֹתִ֨י דָמָ֜יו מִפִּ֗יו וְשִׁקֻּצָיו֙ מִבֵּ֣ין שִׁנָּ֔יו וְנִשְׁאַ֥ר גַּם־ה֖וּא לֵֽאלֹהֵ֑ינוּ
וְהָיָה֙ כְּאַלֻּ֣ף בִּֽיהוּדָ֔ה וְעֶקְר֖וֹן כִּיבוּסִֽי
7 And I will put aside blood from its mouth, its detestable things from between its teeth, and one that is residue, even he, is for our God,
and he will be as captain in Judah and Eqron, as a Jebusite.
וְחָנִ֨יתִי לְבֵיתִ֤י מִצָּבָה֙ מֵעֹבֵ֣ר וּמִשָּׁ֔ב וְלֹֽא־יַעֲבֹ֧ר עֲלֵיהֶ֛ם ע֖וֹד נֹגֵ֑שׂ
כִּ֥י עַתָּ֖ה רָאִ֥יתִי בְעֵינָֽי ס
8 And I will encamp for my house, monitoring the passing through and returning, and none who harass will pass through over them any more,
for now I have seen with my eyes.
גִּילִ֨י מְאֹ֜ד בַּת־צִיּ֗וֹן הָרִ֙יעִי֙ בַּ֣ת יְרוּשָׁלִַ֔ם הִנֵּ֤ה מַלְכֵּךְ֙ יָ֣בוֹא לָ֔ךְ צַדִּ֥יק וְנוֹשָׁ֖ע ה֑וּא
עָנִי֙ וְרֹכֵ֣ב עַל־חֲמ֔וֹר וְעַל־עַ֖יִר בֶּן־אֲתֹנֽוֹת
9 Rejoice excessively, daughter of Zion, raise a shout, daughter of Jerusalem. Behold your king comes to you, a righteous one and saved is he,
impoverished, and riding on an ass, on a colt, the male foal of a she-donkey.
וְהִכְרַתִּי־רֶ֣כֶב מֵאֶפְרַ֗יִם וְסוּס֙ מִיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם וְנִכְרְתָה֙ קֶ֣שֶׁת מִלְחָמָ֔ה וְדִבֶּ֥ר שָׁל֖וֹם לַגּוֹיִ֑ם
וּמָשְׁלוֹ֙ מִיָּ֣ם עַד־יָ֔ם וּמִנָּהָ֖ר עַד־אַפְסֵי־אָֽרֶץ
10 And I will cut off chariot from Ephraim and horse from Jerusalem, and the bow of war will be cut off, and he will speak peace to the nations.
And his governance will be sea to sea and from the river to the ends of the earth.
גַּם־אַ֣תְּ בְּדַם־בְּרִיתֵ֗ךְ שִׁלַּ֤חְתִּי אֲסִירַ֙יִךְ֙ מִבּ֔וֹר אֵ֥ין מַ֖יִם בּֽוֹ 11 Moreover in the blood of your covenant I have sent your prisoners from the pit without water in it. 19
שׁ֚וּבוּ לְבִצָּר֔וֹן אֲסִירֵ֖י הַתִּקְוָ֑ה
גַּם־הַיּ֕וֹם מַגִּ֥יד מִשְׁנֶ֖ה אָשִׁ֥יב לָֽךְ
12 Turn to the enclosure, prisoners of expectation.
Even today is evidence of the variance I will restore to you.
כִּֽי־דָרַ֨כְתִּי לִ֜י יְהוּדָ֗ה קֶ֚שֶׁת מִלֵּ֣אתִי אֶפְרַ֔יִם וְעוֹרַרְתִּ֤י בָנַ֙יִךְ֙ צִיּ֔וֹן עַל־בָּנַ֖יִךְ יָוָ֑ן
וְשַׂמְתִּ֖יךְ כְּחֶ֥רֶב גִּבּֽוֹר
13 For I direct Judah to me. The bow I have filled is Ephraim's and I will unleash your children, Zion, over your children, Greece.
And I have set you in place as the sword of one who prevails.
וַֽיהוָה֙ עֲלֵיהֶ֣ם יֵֽרָאֶ֔ה וְיָצָ֥א כַבָּרָ֖ק חִצּ֑וֹ
וַֽאדֹנָ֤י יְהֹוִה֙ בַּשּׁוֹפָ֣ר יִתְקָ֔ע וְהָלַ֖ךְ בְּסַעֲר֥וֹת תֵּימָֽן
14 And Yahweh over them will be seen and his arrow will come forth as lightning,
and my Lord Yahweh will sound with the shophar and walk with the tempests of a right hand.
יְהוָ֣ה צְבָאוֹת֮ יָגֵ֣ן עֲלֵיהֶם֒ וְאָכְל֗וּ וְכָֽבְשׁוּ֙ אַבְנֵי־קֶ֔לַע וְשָׁת֥וּ הָמ֖וּ כְּמוֹ־יָ֑יִן
וּמָֽלְאוּ֙ כַּמִּזְרָ֔ק כְּזָוִיּ֖וֹת מִזְבֵּֽחַ
15 Yahweh of hosts will defend them and they will devour and control sling stones and they will imbibe and murmur as if wine-soaked,
and they will be filled as bowls, as corner-stones of the altar.
וְֽהוֹשִׁיעָ֞ם יְהוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֛ם בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא כְּצֹ֣אן עַמּ֑וֹ
כִּ֚י אַבְנֵי־נֵ֔זֶר מִֽתְנוֹסְס֖וֹת עַל־אַדְמָתֽוֹ
16 And Yahweh their God will save them in that day as the flock of his people.
For stones of consecration, they are as standards over his ground.
כִּ֥י מַה־טּוּב֖וֹ וּמַה־יָפְי֑וֹ
דָּגָן֙ בַּֽחוּרִ֔ים וְתִיר֖וֹשׁ יְנוֹבֵ֥ב בְּתֻלֽוֹת
17 For what is his goodness and what is his beauty?
The grain of youths in their prime and new wine, the profit of maidens.

The Song in the Night

I just picked up the first proof copy of The Song in the Night a day or two ago.

The image on the cover I took in Jerusalem in 2010. It is the west face of Old Jerusalem by night with the Tower of David on the left. Flecks of light appear almost like accents on the English subtitle.

Publication is scheduled for November. Advance orders may be placed through me or with the publisher.

If you would like to do a review or write me a blurb to be included, let me know and I will get a pre-publication copy to you or an e-copy.

Links to order will follow in due course...

8.5 x 11, 151 pages, 32000 words, over 200 examples of the music in the context of the story.

Thursday, August 18, 2016

Deuteronomy 6

This is such a formative chapter.

As I mistook one of the placings of the Atnah, I recalled that the text in the scrolls is unpointed. The cantor must decide where the rest is to be. And the rest of the shape. I read in Jacobson that there are 'rules' but I think also I have seen his 'rules' broken. At least once, the atnah left only one word in the second 'half' of a verse. It's not hard to find them. And would you know when reading that there is no rest? (I'm sure you might - but perhaps not for the same reasons the first accent 'composer' put them in.)

Reading the unpointed text is a compositional act requiring enormous look-ahead capacity. If my thesis that the existing accents are significant over many verses, then the job is not feasible at sight. And there is little doubt in my mind that there is evidence of non-random significance for accents across multiple verses. The examples I have contradict the traditional view of grammatical decomposition and what Wickes calls 'continuous dichotomy'.

Anyway - this is a formative chapter. Forming the next generation.
Deuteronomy 6
וְזֹ֣את הַמִּצְוָ֗ה הַֽחֻקִּים֙ וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּ֛ה יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֖ם לְלַמֵּ֣ד אֶתְכֶ֑ם
לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת בָּאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתֶּ֛ם עֹבְרִ֥ים שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ
1 And this is the commandment, the statutes, and the judgments which Yahweh your God commanded for teaching you,
to do in the land that you will cross over toward to possess.
לְמַ֨עַן תִּירָ֜א אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ לִ֠שְׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־חֻקֹּתָ֣יו וּמִצְוֺתָיו֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָנֹכִ֣י מְצַוֶּךָ֒ אַתָּה֙ וּבִנְךָ֣ וּבֶן־בִּנְךָ֔ כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֣י חַיֶּ֑יךָ
וּלְמַ֖עַן יַאֲרִכֻ֥ן יָמֶֽיךָ
2 So that you will fear Yahweh your God, to keep all the statutes and his commandments which I am commanding you, you and your child, and the child of your child, all the days of your life,
and so that your days are prolonged.
וְשָׁמַעְתָּ֤ יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְשָׁמַרְתָּ֣ לַעֲשׂ֔וֹת אֲשֶׁר֙ יִיטַ֣ב לְךָ֔ וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּרְבּ֖וּן מְאֹ֑ד
כַּאֲשֶׁר֩ דִּבֶּ֨ר יְהוָ֜ה אֱלֹהֵ֤י אֲבֹתֶ֙יךָ֙ לָ֔ךְ אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָֽשׁ
3 And you will hear, Israel, and you will keep to do, that it may be good for you and that you may increase much,
as Yahweh the God of your ancestors spoke to you, a land gushing with milk and honey.
שְׁמַ֖ע יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ יְהוָ֥ה ׀ אֶחָֽד
4 Hear Israel,
Yahweh is our God, Yahweh is one.
וְאָ֣הַבְתָּ֔ אֵ֖ת יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ
בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ֥ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ֖ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶֽךָ
5 And you will love Yahweh your God,
with all your heart and with all your being and with all your capacity.
וְהָי֞וּ הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֗לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָנֹכִ֧י מְצַוְּךָ֛ הַיּ֖וֹם עַל־לְבָבֶֽךָ 6 And these words which I am commanding you today will be on your heart. 24
וְשִׁנַּנְתָּ֣ם לְבָנֶ֔יךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ֖ בָּ֑ם
בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ֤ בְּבֵיתֶ֙ךָ֙ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ֣ בַדֶּ֔רֶךְ וּֽבְשָׁכְבְּךָ֖ וּבְקוּמֶֽךָ
7 And you will sharpen them for your children and speak in them,
when you sit in your house and when you walk in the way and when you lie down and when you rise up.
וּקְשַׁרְתָּ֥ם לְא֖וֹת עַל־יָדֶ֑ךָ
וְהָי֥וּ לְטֹטָפֹ֖ת בֵּ֥ין עֵינֶֽיךָ
8 And you will fasten them for a sign on your hand,
and they will be frontlets between your eyes.
וּכְתַבְתָּ֛ם עַל־מְזוּזֹ֥ת בֵּיתֶ֖ךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶֽיךָ 9 And you will write them on the posts of your house and your gates. 15
וְהָיָ֞ה כִּ֥י יְבִיאֲךָ֣ ׀ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ אֶל־הָאָ֜רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר נִשְׁבַּ֧ע לַאֲבֹתֶ֛יךָ לְאַבְרָהָ֛ם לְיִצְחָ֥ק וּֽלְיַעֲקֹ֖ב לָ֣תֶת לָ֑ךְ
עָרִ֛ים גְּדֹלֹ֥ת וְטֹבֹ֖ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־בָנִֽיתָ
10 And it will be that when Yahweh your God will conduct you to the land that he swore to your ancestors, to Abraham, to Yitschaq, and to Jacob to give to you:
Cities great and good that not you did build,
וּבָ֨תִּ֜ים מְלֵאִ֣ים כָּל־טוּב֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־מִלֵּאתָ֒ וּבֹרֹ֤ת חֲצוּבִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־חָצַ֔בְתָּ כְּרָמִ֥ים וְזֵיתִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־נָטָ֑עְתָּ
וְאָכַלְתָּ֖ וְשָׂבָֽעְתָּ
11 And houses full of all good, that you did not fill and pits hewn that you did not hew vineyards and olive trees that you did not plant,
and you will eat and you will be satisfied.
הִשָּׁ֣מֶר לְךָ֔ פֶּן־תִּשְׁכַּ֖ח אֶת־יְהוָ֑ה
אֲשֶׁ֧ר הוֹצִֽיאֲךָ֛ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם מִבֵּ֥ית עֲבָדִֽים
12 Keep watch for yourself lest you forget Yahweh,
who brought you forth from the land of Egypt, from the house of servitude.
אֶת־יְהוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ תִּירָ֖א וְאֹת֣וֹ תַעֲבֹ֑ד
וּבִשְׁמ֖וֹ תִּשָּׁבֵֽעַ
13 Yahweh your God, fear, and him serve,
and in his name, make your oath.
לֹ֣א תֵֽלְכ֔וּן אַחֲרֵ֖י אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֑ים
מֵאֱלֹהֵי֙ הָֽעַמִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר סְבִיבוֹתֵיכֶֽם
14 You will not walk after other gods
from the gods of the peoples that surround you.
כִּ֣י אֵ֥ל קַנָּ֛א יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ בְּקִרְבֶּ֑ךָ
פֶּן־יֶ֠חֱרֶה אַף־יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ בָּ֔ךְ וְהִשְׁמִ֣ידְךָ֔ מֵעַ֖ל פְּנֵ֥י הָאֲדָמָֽה
15 (for a jealous God, Yahweh your God, is within you)
lest the anger of Yahweh your God burn in you and exterminate you from off the surface of the ground.
לֹ֣א תְנַסּ֔וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֑ם
כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר נִסִּיתֶ֖ם בַּמַּסָּֽה
16 You will not tempt Yahweh your God,
as you tempted in the temptation.
שָׁמ֣וֹר תִּשְׁמְר֔וּן אֶת־מִצְוֺ֖ת יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֑ם
וְעֵדֹתָ֥יו וְחֻקָּ֖יו אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּֽךְ
17 To keep you will keep the commandments of Yahweh your God,
and his testimonies and his statutes that he is commanding you.
וְעָשִׂ֛יתָ הַיָּשָׁ֥ר וְהַטּ֖וֹב בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
לְמַ֙עַן֙ יִ֣יטַב לָ֔ךְ וּבָ֗אתָ וְיָֽרַשְׁתָּ֙ אֶת־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַטֹּבָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּ֥ע יְהוָ֖ה לַאֲבֹתֶֽיךָ
18 And you will do what is upright and what is good in the eyes of Yahweh,
so that it may be good for you. And you will come and you will possess the good land that Yahweh swore to your ancestors,
לַהֲדֹ֥ף אֶת־כָּל־אֹיְבֶ֖יךָ מִפָּנֶ֑יךָ
כַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהוָֽה
19 to evict all your enemies from before you,
as Yahweh spoke.
כִּֽי־יִשְׁאָלְךָ֥ בִנְךָ֛ מָחָ֖ר לֵאמֹ֑ר
מָ֣ה הָעֵדֹ֗ת וְהַֽחֻקִּים֙ וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּ֛ה יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ אֶתְכֶֽם
20 When your child will ask you afterwards, saying,
What are the testimonies and the statutes and the judgments that Yahweh our God commanded you.
וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ לְבִנְךָ֔ עֲבָדִ֛ים הָיִ֥ינוּ לְפַרְעֹ֖ה בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם
וַיּוֹצִיאֵ֧נוּ יְהוָ֛ה מִמִּצְרַ֖יִם בְּיָ֥ד חֲזָקָֽה
21 Then you will say to your child, Servants we were to Pharaoh in Egypt,
and Yahweh brought us out from Egypt with a resolute hand.
וַיִּתֵּ֣ן יְהוָ֡ה אוֹתֹ֣ת וּ֠מֹפְתִים גְּדֹלִ֨ים וְרָעִ֧ים ׀ בְּמִצְרַ֛יִם בְּפַרְעֹ֥ה וּבְכָל־בֵּית֖וֹ לְעֵינֵֽינוּ 22 And Yahweh gave signs and portents, great ones and evil ones, in Egypt to Pharaoh,
and to all his house in our sight.
וְאוֹתָ֖נוּ הוֹצִ֣יא מִשָּׁ֑ם
לְמַ֙עַן֙ הָבִ֣יא אֹתָ֔נוּ לָ֤תֶת לָ֙נוּ֙ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבַּ֖ע לַאֲבֹתֵֽינוּ
23 And us he brought out from there so as to conduct us to give to us the land which he swore to our ancestors. 8
וַיְצַוֵּ֣נוּ יְהוָ֗ה לַעֲשׂוֹת֙ אֶת־כָּל־הַחֻקִּ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה לְיִרְאָ֖ה אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ
לְט֥וֹב לָ֙נוּ֙ כָּל־הַיָּמִ֔ים לְחַיֹּתֵ֖נוּ כְּהַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה
24 And Yahweh commanded us to do all these statutes, to fear Yahweh our God,
for our good every day to make us alive as at this day.
וּצְדָקָ֖ה תִּֽהְיֶה־לָּ֑נוּ
כִּֽי־נִשְׁמֹ֨ר לַעֲשׂ֜וֹת אֶת־כָּל־הַמִּצְוָ֣ה הַזֹּ֗את לִפְנֵ֛י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּֽנוּ
25 And righteousness it will be for us,
that we keep and do all this commandment in the presence of Yahweh our God as he has commanded us.