Tuesday, September 1, 2015

Approaching the rest, an analysis

In the three books, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, here is how often the mid point rest of a verse is approached from tifcha to atnach. 1,612 times. And without the tifcha 2,635 times,

In the '21 books', here is how often the mid point rest of a verse is approached from tifcha to atnach. 17,199 times. And without the tifcha only 54 times. Perhaps this is why the default tone that Haik-Vantoura chose is what it is.

It is no wonder that the simple rule quoted by de Hoop that tifkha precedes atnach is hard to express. First it is only in the 21 books that we would suggest this thesis and there we would break it a few times. So it is rare but not impossible to approach the mid point rest without a tifcha.

In music this is getting to the A without a G#. It happens in the 21 prose books of the Bible 15 times - I could cite them all: Deut 11:27, 24:10, Exodus 4:10, 33:14, 33:18, Genesis 15:8, 18:3, 19:7, 24:34, 30:28, 34:31, 35:5, 44:6, Leviticus 8:19, 22:19 - all in the Torah.

You can look at them, but don't trust the translation. Who is trying to keep you in place? Come now someone who know better than I and tell me why this example is translated with IF, IF, rather than THAT, IF? Why - because people know that God is a horror to be appeased. Such a lie.

אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּשְׁמְע֗וּ אֶל־מִצְוֺת֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָנֹכִ֛י מְצַוֶּ֥ה אֶתְכֶ֖ם הַיּֽוֹם

This has the remarkable property that the first word is the first half of the verse. It reads to me

A blessing, [There is a rest on this important word - pause!]
that (אֲשֶׁ֣ר) you might hear the commandment of Yahweh your God that (אֲשֶׁ֣ר) I command you today.

The path to the rest is direct from e to A musically. To obey / to hear / is to have rested!

then verse 28 is a long and tortuous route to the rest: from e to the octave above C then B then back to e then B then down a major seventh to c d f g(#) and finally to the rest on A. This verse has the word if you do not (אִם־לֹ֤א) in it. It is a warning. But the first verse of the pair, verse 27 is a down payment and it is not conditional - except in English translations!

וְהַקְּלָלָ֗ה אִם־לֹ֤א תִשְׁמְעוּ֙ אֶל־מִצְוֺת֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם וְסַרְתֶּ֣ם מִן־הַדֶּ֔רֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָנֹכִ֛י מְצַוֶּ֥ה אֶתְכֶ֖ם הַיּ֑וֹם
לָלֶ֗כֶת אַחֲרֵ֛י אֱלֹהִ֥ים אֲחֵרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יְדַעְתֶּֽם

And I would not render this word as a curse but rather as a Denial. (See my Deuteronomy 28). I am not ready for this.

A denial if you do not hear the commandment of Yahweh your God and you turn aside from the way that I have commanded you today [There is a rest on this word - Pause - You are there as long as it is called today! You know this.]
to go after other gods that you do not know.

There a complex simplicity here in that word 'know' that I have not got the information for to put it into words. The blessing is the knowledge and the knowledge is one of deep care - and other Elohim (gods) do not have the knowledge that is in Yahweh God (Elohim).

Fighting over it, in a sectarian way, will not do of course. But if we learn to sing these verses maybe we will get the point and be healed.

I got distracted - there are hundreds of ways in which A is approached via g. More later. (Hundreds in the 21 books). And hundreds of ways in which it is approached without the g - in the three books.

Sequences of accents in the Hebrew Bible

It has come to my attention from both Jacobson and other writers that there is a pairing of accents in their theory of how they work. Possibly this is true, but it is better I think to ask another question. In how many ways can one approach a cadence? (For them, to be fair, they speak in terms of relative length of pause, a concept similar to a cadence.)

I read for example, the claim here by Raymond de Hoop who seems to have written extensively on the accents, this sentence: So, for example, an atnach is preceded by tifcha; zaqef is preceded by pashta, etc. And he presents Exodus 15:3 as his text:
יְהוָ֖ה אִ֣ישׁ מִלְחָמָ֑ה
יְהוָ֖ה שְׁמֽוֹ
In this case the atnach ^ is preceded by the munah and that is preceded by tifcha, there is neither zaqef nor pashta in this example. I assume he is not then talking about immediate precedence. He goes on to present Exodus 15:12:
נָטִ֙יתָ֙ יְמִ֣ינְךָ֔ תִּבְלָעֵ֖מוֹ אָֽרֶץ
Here there are a pair of pashta preceding a zaqef.

He is to make an important point and ask a specific question as he puts the parallelism in the Song of the Sea in line with the use of the accents. His third example is verse 8, logically a tricolon, but from a cadential point of view, a bicolon.

His fourth example is verse 16, showing equivalence of accents through mutual subordination (what a strange way to describe music.) Here is how he puts it:
In this case atnach marks the end of a bicolon and is of similar strength as silluq and zaqef is thus subordinated to silluq and atnach. In the previous examples atnach was subordinated to silluq and thus not of similar strength to silluq and consequently did not belong to the same grade...
Now this, Edward Bear would say, is Hard-to-Follow for a layperson in Hebrew. In fact most of you have given up on that paragraph.

So now to my question: how many ways can you approach a rest, i.e., in these cases, the major rest point in the prose books (even though this chapter is poetry, it is not using the accentuation of the Psalms).

The music is below. If you can read music, you will see how many differing ways that the mid-point of the verse is approached. I have seen many: E-F-G#-A, D-F-G#-A, E-G#-B-A, E-B-A, E-B-G#-A, E-A!, and several other variations.

So it is not that "an atnach is preceded by tifcha", but that the rest on A (effectively the subdominant) is preceded, often immediately by or a note or two, by a G#, because this note is musically its leading tone. tifcha is then no longer a mystery, it leads somewhere harmonically and a musician setting the words to music would be able to use it as the sense of the words required.

Now come to the 4-colon verse 16. This verse is not by any means a simple parallelism. It is a progressive parallel, a bicolon, each of which can be subdivided and is, by the appoggiatura. leading first to the dread (word 4) that makes them to be mute as stones (words 7-8), and then to the cadence that sings of the purchase or acquisition (word 17).
תִּפֹּ֨ל עֲלֵיהֶ֤ם אֵימָ֙תָה֙ וָפַ֔חַד בִּגְדֹ֥ל זְרוֹעֲךָ֖ יִדְּמ֣וּ כָּאָ֑בֶן

עַד־יַעֲבֹ֤ר עַמְּךָ֙ יְהוָ֔ה עַֽד־יַעֲבֹ֖ר עַם־ז֥וּ קָנִֽיתָ
Horror and dread will fall on them by the greatness of your arm. They will be mute as a stone, //
till your people is over, Yahweh, till is over, this people that you purchased.

The music snippet illustrates the accents in what turns out to be a common (if complex) phrase structure.
In this chapter on the Song of  the Sea, this form of phrase occurs several times: verses 1a and b, 2 and b, 8a, 11a, 15a, 16a and b, 21b, 22a, 25a, 26a. Each of these verse segments reaches the high C with ornaments and takes many syllables to reach the rest (atnach) or the final tonic note (silluq) of the verse. Different complexities occur after verse 16 with several verses using the low C: 17a, 19a and b, 20a, 22b.

I suspect that these musical forms capture the essence of the understanding of the text as it would have been perceived by the one who first coded the hand signals. And I think the music of Haik-Vantoura accomplishes this revelation of ancient understanding far better than words about accents or even the complex melismas of tradition (per Jacobson).

The song itself ends with verse 18, the only verse in the chapter to have no atnach (mid-verse rest). In verse 21b, the opening line of the Song of the Sea is re-sung as a refrain. And the music is identical.

In the remaining prose section, the imitative climax of the music in verses 25 and 26 continues (25) the reflection on the song, and highlights (26) the consequence to be learned from the experience. Verse 27 is a simpler tune moving the company from one experience to the next.

de Hoop has many more examples in which he is explaining the music in words. What we need to do now is explore how the simple rules of Haik-Vantoura reveal both the beauty of the music as well as the understanding of the text.

The first step to translation must now be: open the score of the chapter and sing the text. All the chapters of the Hebrew Bible are now available in musical score from this blog site. See the instructions on the music page.

Monday, August 31, 2015

The August Carnival for Biblical Studies CXIV

Owen Chadwick (British clergyman, academic, writer, and prominent historian of Christianity) died on July 17th. His funeral was at Great St Mary's on August 3rd. He warned, citing Augustine, that we must befriend those whom we would study from the past:
You may suspect, you ought to suspect them all, as sure to mislead you vilely unless your critical sense is ever alert... you need to be inside their minds and to forget the future which they could not know, and to come towards them with the openness of mind, the readiness to listen, which a man gives to a friend.

Ed. note: To be a friend to the e-people in the (mostly) academic Bible blogging community, to remind myself who they are, I have introduced the authors with their own self-description or from their site's about page.

Week 1, the 1st of August, 2015, a Saturday.
August is the hottest month
It's Time for a Septuagint reader, according to Abram K-J ('pastor of a great church in a seaside community near Boston').

Biblical Studies Online (maintained by Prof. James Crossley, St Mary’s University, London and Dr. Deane Galbraith, University of Otago) posts a series of lectures by Jon Levenson on the Akedah. The first demonstrates links to several Psalms and illustrates how the Akedah is reflected in the Passion of Jesus and in medieval plays on the subject.

On the subject of the literal, Deane has posted a lecture by Baruch Schwartz “Moses Wrote This Torah’ [Deuteronomy 31:9]: Did He Really?”.
Memory and desire
Jim Davila (Professor of Early Jewish Studies at the Divinity School of the University of St. Andrews) points out a new book from Brill on Hebrew verbs in the Qumran scrolls by Ken Penner. "Penner answers the question of Qumran Hebrew verb form semantics using an empirical method: a database calculating the correlation between each form and each function, establishing that the ancient author’s selection of verb form is determined not by aspect, but by tense or modality." More in an interview with Brian Davidson here. And this will take you time to read about tense, taxis, aspect, and mood.  (Ed. note: Water in solid form contracts when heated.)

On Bible Films, Matt Page (Database manager from Loughborough UK) posts one that was missed. "Christians have long debated whether the words from Isaiah 53:2, recited at the start of the film, meant that Jesus was ugly."

Jim West (Professor of Biblical Studies at the Quartz Hill School of Theology and Lecturer in Biblical and Reformation Studies, Ming Hua Theological College.) reminds us of a thesis about time duration in the reign of Saul.
What are the roots that clutch, what branches grow
Out of this stony rubbish?
Mark Whiting (University of Surrey, Senior lecturer in Metallurgy) completes his series on canon within canon with critical realism as middle ground.
Carpe Scriptura (by Marlowe, with a lifelong interest in world religions and mythologies) introduces Chronicles.

Aren Maeir (Professor at Bar Ilan University and director of the Tell es-Safi/Gath Archaeological Project) posts about נחשף שער העיר גת פלישתים מלפני 3,000 שנה Gate exposed of the Philistine city of Gath dating back 3000 years.

Phillip Long (Grace Bible College, Bible Department, Faculty Member) posts on Psalm 36.
 Son of man, ...
(Come in, under the shadow of this red rock)
And Phil continues here with dread.
I will show you fear in a handful of dust
Larry Hurtado (Professor of New Testament Language, Literature & Theology, University of Edinburgh, retired) posts on emerging orthodoxy.

Jacob Prahlow (PhD student studying Historical Theology at Saint Louis University) considers Marcion.

Jacob also begins a pursuit of the eye-witness question.
And here is the one-eyed merchant
Jim Davila points out discoveries in ancient Jerusalem of ancient Mikveh baths and an ancient mansion.

Ken Schenck (Professor of New Testament in the School of Theology and Ministry at Indiana Wesleyan University) takes up the Wright volume on Paul again.

Jonathan Bernier (PhD Religious Studies, McMaster) posts on Narrative and Chronology.
Bill Heroman (retired Math teacher, an amateur christian historian) argues for peon review.
Jim West points out some arguments for modern culture from Germany.
I do not find
The Hanged Man
Anatoly Liberman (Professor in the Department of German, Scandinavian and Dutch at the University of Minnesota) writes on the etymology of god.
Airton José (Professor de Bíblia Hebraica / Antigo Testamento na Faculdade de Teologia da Arquidiocese de Ribeirão Preto, SP. ) reminds us that the Lord's prayer is political.

Tommy Wasserman (Associate Professor of New Testament Exegesis at Örebro School of Theology) reviews The Gothic Version of the Gospels and the Pauline Epistles."barbarians are flooding the court and no one is going to get them out again".

To beat the heat, Ayana (teacher of modern Hebrew) says you should order some ice cream.
אֲנִי רוֺצֶה בְּבַקָּשָׁה כַּדּוּר אֶחָד שֶׁל גְּלִידַת וָנִיל
David Koyzis (Musician, Professor of Political Science) reminds us of Psalm 150, Kodaly.
The wind
Crosses the brown land, unheard.
Bosco Peters (B.Theol (Hons) Melbourne College of Divinity) writes on Transfiguration on this day of remembrance.
Jim Gordon (Scottish Baptist minister, an enthusiastic theological educator, a writer and reader, an Aberdeen Football supporter, and seconder of Louis Armstrong's affirmation 'What a Wonderful World') cites Ernst Kaseman.
Poi s'ascose nel foco che gli affina
Quando fiam ceu chelidon-- 
Then he hid himself in the refining fire/ 
When shall I become like a swallow
λεγω, lego
Johnson Thomaskutty (PhD: Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Holland) writes on the dialogical nature of of the prologue to John.
Depending on the context, logos has a wide variety of meanings: explanation, argument, theory, law or rule of conduct, hypothesis, formula or definition, narrative, oration, communication, conversation, dialogue, oracle, proverb or saying. The context here beckons us to see in Jesus the internal dialogue of God which later developed as a dialogue of God with the world. Hence Jesus is God’s dialogue in flesh.
James Crossley posts an interview with Chris Keith (Professor of New Testament and Early Christianity and Director of the Centre for the Social-Scientific Study of the Bible at St Mary’s University, Twickenham, London.) on Social Memory, Form Criticism, and the Criteria for Authenticity.

Week 2 Day the 8th.
Stephen Bedard (adjunct faculty at Emmanuel Bible College) notes the falsification of historical reasoning around the sacred scapegoat.
John Hobbins (UM Pastor, see link for more info) comments on Crime and Punishment here.
James McGrath (Clarence L. Goodwin Chair in New Testament Language and Literature at Butler University in Indianapolis, Indiana) throws us back to an historical post (2011) on being Biblical.
By the waters of Leman I sat down and wept
Marg Mowczko (pursuing an MA in Early Christian and Jewish Studies with Macquarie University) writes on Adam's responsibility.
D. Miller, (from Saskatchewan, Associate Professor of New Testament and Early Judaism, Briercrest College and Seminary) reads Romans in reconstructed Greek.
Michael Kok (PhD in Biblical Studies, University of Sheffield) introduces Revelation and Apocalyptic Literature.
Unreal City, ... I had not thought death had undone so many
Paul Allen (Concordia University Theological Studies, Faculty Member) considers whether a single epistemology can bridge science and theology.

Robert Miles (Lecturer in the School of Humanities at the University of Auckland, New Zealand) posts the unbelievable. Is this a post, a podcast, or a tweet?
Jacob Prahlow reviews Marvin Pate's 40 questions about the Historical Jesus.

Marg considers the Greek tradition behind the weaker vessel.
Phil continues his series on the Psalms with part of the wicked acrostic.
James McGrath takes on the process of canon formation with a game of politics, compromise, and consensus-building. He also has a dinner invitation here.
Jacob Prahlow posts on Marcion's role in the formation of the canon.
Daniel Gullotta (budding New Testament scholar and early Christian historian committed to the secular study of ancient religion) interviews Hector Avalos (Religious Studies Professor at Iowa State University).
Then spoke the thunder 
Datta: what have we given? 
OUP (multiple authors) comments on Acts of God.
Bob MacDonald (retired database specialist and business owner, student of Hebrew, musician) posts on economics, politics, and Haggai.
More politics on Trump and menstruation from Jim Davila.
My friend, blood shaking my heart
Eric Jobe (Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations at the University of Chicago) explores the mythology of Psalm 93.

Ken Schenck continues his preview of an upcoming book with the chapter on Bruggemann.
Anatoly also via OUP considers the etymology of God in the Gothic 4th century translation of the Scriptures hereguþ (þ, the letter called thorn, had the value of Engl. th in thin)

Phil Long reviews Peter: False Disciple and Apostate according to Saint Matthew by Robert H. Gundry.

P. Funari (Professor of historical archeology, Campinas, Brazil) has reviewed Mulheres na Bíblia Hebraica. In: Eliézer Serra Braga. (Org.). Santas e Sedutoras, as heroinas na Bíblia Hebraica.

James McGrath reviews William Dever's The Lives of Ordinary People in Israel.
Rachel Held Evans (New York Times best-selling author) writes on girls and boys toys re reception history of um. er... Genesis or Paul?
Stockings, slippers, camisoles, and stays
Bible History (via BAS staff) reports on Codex Sinaiticus and the parts that are missing.
James Pate (Ph.D. student at Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion) comments on a post from carnival LXXXVI (פו) - a simple one-liner.
Joel Watts (Ph.D. student at the University of the Free State) shares some comic relief.
Bosco Peters reflects on pilgrimage and travelling light.
In the faint moonlight, the grass is singing
Larry Berhendt (ex-ex attorney and current software engineer) distinguishes etiology from prescription in Genesis 2:24 and points out the critical technique of defamiliarization as a strategy for teaching.
Mackenzie Reynolds (Rabbinical student) reflects on Elul and the religious, political, and personal consequences.
John Cook (Associate Professor of Old Testament at Asbury Theological Seminary) has some newly enhanced freely usable resources for Beginning Biblical Hebrew.

Jim West, with a nice copy of Zwingli's handwriting on screen, points out new articles in Bible and Interpretation: William Lyons (University of Bristol) on redefining Biblical Studies as reception history and Jerry Sumney (Professor of Biblical Studies, Lexington Theological Seminary) on the Rhetoric of Paul.

Edith Humphrey (William F. Orr Professor of New Testament at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary) explains the Dormition and Translation of the Holy Theotokos.

Week 3 Day the 15th.
Jim Davila links to Esther Eshel (Associate Professor in the Bible department at Bar Ilan University) on the oldest known copy of the Decalogue. Neither accent nor niqqud in the images.
Patrick Finglass (Professor of Greek, University of Nottingham) points out the value of a comma here.

16. Mid-month, a Sunday.
Tim Bulkeley (Old Testament teacher, Carey Baptist College, the NZ Baptist Seminary, retired) reposts on Yahweh as midwife.
Michael Kok shares handouts on Criteria for the New Testament Canon.
Marg posts on Junia among the apostles.

Phil Long invites a consideration of four words in Psalm 49.
Speak to me. Why do you never speak. Speak.
James McGrath reviews Jodi Magness' Stone and Dung Oil and Spit.
Jim Davila points out a database for verbs in the DSS.
Of thunder of spring over distant mountains
Larry Hurtado comments on Bruce Longnecker's The Cross before Constantine.
Paul Davidson (a professional Japanese-English translator) explores the disjunctions in the order of John's Gospel.
Robert Myles (Lecturer in the School of Humanities at the University of Auckland) is advertising from down under. (Ed. note: I usually try to avoid ads, but... Warning, down under classification is PG or MA 15+ probably not RC.)

Ben Stanhope (Philosophy student at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary) refutes universalism.
Deane posts two podcasts from Larry Hurtado on High Christology (first one starts at about 11 minutes in).
Who is the third who walks always beside you?
Larry Hurtado posts a pre-publication paper on who read the Early Christian Apocrypha.
SBL announces new content on the Ask a Scholar site of Bible Odyssey:
Wil Gafney on HagarStephen Cook on the rise of resurrection beliefsJacqueline Hidalgo on Postcolonial critiques of archaeologyBillie Jean Collins on Egyptians and HittitesJennifer Koosed on the death of JezebelDaniel McClellan on names of GodShuichi Hasegawa on the House of OmriByron McCane on sarcophagiCory Crawford on the function of placeBrent Landau asks: Was Luke a historian?, Tremper Longman III on Proverbs. (Information on all these scholars is available from each cited article.)
dark labyrinths indeed
Jim West notes Melanchthon's wedding anniversary and his favorite portrait by Hans Holbein the younger.
Alan Nadler (Professor of Religion and the Director of the Jewish Studies Program at Drew University) reviews Shaul Magid’s Hasidism Incarnate including an analysis of Chagall's White Crucifixion.
Daniel Kirk (Associate Professor of New Testament, Fuller Theological Seminary) writes on freedom and identity.

Anthony B Pinn (Professor of Humanities and Professor of Religion at Rice University) writes on African American music and its use of Scriptural Lyrics.
Jim West points out an interview with Jeffrey Gibson.
David Koyzis posts a performance of Psalm 138 by the Ensemble Sweelinck.
This music crept by me upon the waters
Ken Schenck continues his book review with the chapter on James Dunn.
Anatoly Liberman continues his exploration of the etymology of God.

Lloyd Pietersen (Adjunct, Theology, Newman University) lectures on An Anarchist Reading of Romans 13 with a brief history including references to Tolstoy, Chomsky, Ellul, and Mark Twain among many, and a review of anarchy in the Bible from Judges to the Sermon on the Mount., Full notes available at the link.
There is the empty chapel, only the wind’s home.
Mark Whiting tweets on a translation of Barth's Academic Lectures on Ephesians by Ross M. Wright (begins on page 44 of the thesis).
Thalia Rowden (minister West Baptist Church, New Plymouth) hosts a guest post on women in the Bible from Lindy Jacomb (theology student at Carey Baptist College).

Robert Cargill (Assistant Professor of Classics and Religious Studies at The University of Iowa) on Numbers 5 and induced abortion (rated RC).
Daniel Gulotta writes on obscurity and fame in the ancient world.
Phil Long continues his reading of Psalms of Psalm 49.
I think we are in rats’ alley
Where the dead men lost their bones.
Erhard Gerstenberger (Professor, Faculty of Protestant Theology, University of Marburg) reviews Dennis Tucker's work on Book 5 of the Psalter.
William Brown (BA in Biblical Literature from Northwest University) posts on Exodus and Leviticus, A Parallel Reading, Part III.

140 character conference papers by Travis @WTravisMcMaken (Associate Professor of Religion and Chair of the General Studies Program at Lindenwood University).
Dry bones can harm no one.
Continuing a conversation from Carnival C (ק), here is a long comment by BLT's J.K. Gayle ('PhD Rhetoric Texas Christian U. Recovering from "the church," "the patriarchy," and the Western "Academy."').
Here is no water but only rock
and Phil has a review of Mark J. Boda, Return To Me: A Biblical Theology of Repentance.

Jim West points to a critique of de Vaux and an impossible staircase.

Bob MacDonald explains how the music of the te'amim supports the grammatical structure of Proverbs chapter 2

Mrs Noah c 1985
missing a tooth and (still) fond of gin
Week 4 Day the 22nd.
Jim Davila reports on an ancient Hebrew seal in a 2,000 year old tomb of a female Samaritan fighter found in Russia.
Jim also posts on a Greek manuscript fragment from 6 Ezra with a link to an abstract of his lecture on this topic.

Fear death by water
Tim Bulkeley posts on Mrs. Noah.
And Noah’s round ark takes to the water on the History blog by livius drusus (but there was no information on this author).
William Brown reflects on Judges.

Jim Davila points to a long comment thread on eyewitnesses (in case you missed it) including several from Richard Bauckham (retired Professor of New Testament Studies at the University of St Andrews).
I could not
Speak, and my eyes failed
Phil continues his posts on the Psalms with Psalm 73.
Andrew Bernhard (Master of Studies, Oxford University) calls for closure on the gospel of Jesus' wife. See also Jim Davila's post. And that of Christian Askeland(Assistant Research Professor of Christian Origins (JWHC), Indiana Wesleyan University).
Unstoppered, lurked her strange synthetic perfumes
Unguent, powdered, or liquid—troubled, confused
Jim West notes a book on John's use of Ezekiel.
Bob MacDonald identifies a musical frame in Job 10 and compares shared words in Job 10 and Psalm 39.
Aren Maier posts a new article on Philistine invasion biology. Apparently the Philistines didn't like coriander!
And Joel notes one or two issues with St Cyril on the Song.
Jug Jug
Larry Hurtado posts on early Christianity and the sexual abuse of children.
Phil continues with Psalm 73.
Daniel Gullotta reviews the Ancient Gospel or Modern Forgery?: The Secret Gospel of Mark in Debate: Proceedings from the 2011 York University Christian Apocrypha Symposium
Matt Page notes another Brian-like film from 1982.
Daniel McClellan (doctoral student in theology and religion at the University of Exeter) considers the myth of Scriptural Literalism.
James McGrath finishes a series of articles on mythicism.
Are you alive, or not? Is there nothing in your head?
As we near the end of the month, consider it has been but a day in the life of the community. And it is appropriate to end at this later hour in the day with Compline as Christian Brady (Associate professor of ancient Hebrew and Jewish literature and dean of the Schreyer Honors College at Penn State) invites us to do.
If there were water, we would stop and drink 
Jim Davila notes never to trust a headline.
Phil completes Psalm 73.
Ken continues his book review with the chapter on John Goldingay.
Deane posts links to the Oxford 2011 Lecture Series on the King James Bible.
The Jesus Blog posts a summary of the Le Donne / Keith / Bauckham conversation on eye witnesses.
Bob posts on tradition struggling under a falsely engineered explanation of the accents in the Hebrew text.
Andrew Perriman (extension studies tutor for St John’s Nottingham and London School of Theology’s MA in Aspects and Implications of Biblical Interpretation) posts on the end of the world.
David Capes (Thomas Nelson Research Professor in the Department of Theology at HBU) reviews LeDonne's The Wife of Jesus.)
Mark Goodacre (Professor of New Testament and Christian Origins at Duke University) summarizes the case against the Jesus' wife fragment.
“What are you thinking of? What thinking? What?
“I never know what you are thinking. Think.”

Deborah Thompson Prince (Faculty, Bellarmine University, Louisville) reviews Teresa Calpino's Women, Work and Leadership in Acts.
Marianne Grohmann (University of Vienna) and Linda S. Schearing (Gonzaga University, Spokane) each review Carol Meyers' Rediscovering Eve: Ancient Israelite Women in Context.
Hélène Dallaire (Denver Seminary) reviews Merrill Morse, Isaiah Speaks: A Voice from the Past for the Present.
James McGrath points out an article on Solomon and peer pressure.

Week 5 Day the 29th.
Daniel Gullotta raises the question of whether there are forgeries in the New Testament.
Deane posts a course from Missouri State University on the Introduction to Hebrew Bible  and the University of Chester Guides for PhD Students.
Jude, in a comment, posts the Myriad Virtual Singer, a droid, singing Psalm 119. (Note: every chapter of the Hebrew Bible is as of this carnival available to the public in Music XML as described here. It is possible to use this music to chant or dramatize the liturgy. As of this carnival, the accents are no longer sealed.)

30. The fifth Sunday

Ben Witherington (Professor of New Testament Interpretation at Asbury Theological Seminary in Wilmore, Kentucky) is reading N.T.Wright's Paul and his Recent Interpreters chapter 4. (Ed. note: to avoid the obnoxious ads, read Patheos blogs in a vertical half screen.)
These fragments I have shored against my ruins
Marg posts on extra honour to underdogs from down under.
Tim questions the impact of a 1000% increase in literacy.
Wayne Coppins (Associate Professor of Religion at University of Georgia) translates Eve-Marie Backer on the Construction of History in Mark, Paul, and Luke. This work, Wayne writes, brings "the category of history into connection with Mark and Paul rather than relating it exclusively to Luke, while simultaneously showing with great precision how concrete differences in the authors’ perspectives and approaches resulted in important differences in the ways that they construct ‘history’ in their works."

Scott McKnight (Professor of New Testament at Northern Seminary in Lombard, IL) recalls his experience in the Great Alexandrian library.

Graças a Airton José da Silva para continuar a numeração dos carnavais.
We are now at carnival number נז*ב = קיד [that is 57 * 2= 114]
Shall I at least set my lands in order?

The September 2015 Biblical Studies Carnival is to be hosted by William Brown (@willhartbrown) at The Biblical Review

Contact Phil Long at plong42 at gmail.com if you want to host a carnival. Carnival hosts are needed for October and November 2015.

I began the month with 'one half-formed thought' that the singular poem, T. S. Eliot's poem, The Wasteland could be used as a counterfoil to my immersion in Biblioblog post-land. It was a long overdue review of a poem I was supposed to have read and studied for two if not three classes over 50 years ago.
(Well now that’s done: and I’m glad it’s over)

Thursday, August 27, 2015

An offered bibliography on the accents

Argument? nope - Read this book? - nope - read all these books then come back and talk to me.

Such an advisor I have. At age nearly 70, have I time?  We'll see - so I keep the list for reference.

All I can offer you - a bibliography. 

This list is not complete. You can take a lot more literature in Hebrew. 
There are two books on computer technology and teamim below the list. 
At the bottom are the work of scientists like Vantoura, - she is not the only one. 

Avenary, Hanoch. The Ashkenazi Tradition of Biblical Chant between 1500 and 1900: Documentation and Musical Analysis. Tel-Aviv: Tel-Aviv University; the Council for Culture & Art, 1978. 87 p. 
de Balmes, Abraham ben Meir. Peculium Abrae : Grammatica Hebraea vna cum Latino. Venetijs : In aedibus Danielis Bo[m]bergi, 1523. IV, 638 p. 
Ben-Zeev, Yehuda Leib. Talmud loshn ivri. Breslau: Grassische Stadt-Buchdruckerey, 1796. 292 р. 
Berliner, Abraham. Beiträgezur hebräischen Grammatik in Talmud und Midrasch. Berlin: M. Driesner, 1879. 59 z. 
Binder, Abraham Wolf. Biblical Chant. New York: Sakred Music Press, 1959. 125 p. 
Cohen, Dalia; Herzog, Avigdor; Sharvit, Uri; Weil, Daniel. Characterization of the System of Te'amim in Practice in Light of Theoretical Findings about the Original Performance // Proceedings of the Tenth World Congress of Jewish Studies. Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1990. Div. D, vol. 2. P. 149–156. 
Cohen, Dalia; Weil, Daniel. The Original Performance of the Tiberian Masoretic Accents, a Deductive Approach: 1. The Syntactic Function // Leshoneinu, 1989. P. 1–25. 
Cohen, Dalia; Weil, Daniel. The Scale System and Scale of Tiberian Masoretic Cantillation: Were They Pentatonic? Theoretical Considerations // Orbis Musicae. Vol. 10. 1991. P. 98–117. 
Davis, Arthur. The Hebrew Accents of the Twenty-one Books of the Bible. London, D. Nutt, 1892. VIII, 70 p. 
Delitzsch, Franz. Physiologie und Musik in ihrer Bedeutung für die Grammatik, besonders die hebräische: eine akademische Rede. Leipzig : Dörffling und Franke, 1868. 47 s. 
Dotan, Aron. Prolegomenon. Research in Biblical Accentuation: Background and Trends // Wickes, William; Dotan, Aron. Two Treatises on the Accentuation of the Old Testament. New York, 1970. P. VII–XXXVII. 
Engberg, Sysse Gudrun. Greec ekphonetic neumes and Masoretic Accents // Studies in Eastern Chant. Supplementum Epigraficum Graecum. Amsterdam, 1966, No. I. P. 37–49. 
Jacobson 1992 — Jacobson, Joshua R. Ta'amey Hamikra: a Closer Look // Journal of Sinagogue Music. 1992, vol. XXII, No. 1–2. P. 76–90. 
Jacobson 2005 — Jacobson, Joshua R. Chanting the Hebrew Bible (Student Edition): The Complete Guide to the Art of Cantillation. Philadelphia: Jewish Publications Society, 2005. 300 p. 
Joosten, Jan. The Tiberian vocalization and the edition of the Hebrew Bible Text. To be published by Innocent Himbaza in a volume in the OBO series. URL:https://www.academia.edu/8502968/The_Tiberian_vocalization_and_the_edition_of_the_Hebrew_Bible_Text
Khan, Geoffrey A. A Short Introduction to the Tiberian Masoretic Bible and its Reading Tradition. Piscataway NJ: Gorgias Press, 2012. 154 p. 
Kircher, Athanasius. Musurgia universalis, sive ars magnæ consoni et dissoni: in 10 libros digesta. Tome I: libros 1–7. Romæ: Franceso Corbelletti, 1650. 71, 37, 79, 52, 204, 128, 188 s. 
Mitchell H. G. The Prose Accents // Journal of Biblical Literature. Vol. 9, № 1, 1890. P. 132–135. 
Mitchell H. G. The Poetical Accents // Journal of Biblical Literature. Vol. 10, № 2, 1891, P. 144–146. 
Portnoy, Marshall; Wolff, Josee. The Art of Torah Cantillation: A Step-By-Step Guide to Chanting. New York: URJ Press, 2000. 96 p. + CD. 
Praetorius 1901 — Praetorius, Franz. Uber Die Herkunft Der Hebraischen Accente. Berlin: Verlag von Reuther & Reichard, 1901. 53 s. 
Price, James D. The syntax of masoretic accents in the Hebrew Bible. Lewiston; New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 1990. 323 p. 
Price, James D. Concordance of the Hebrew Accents in the Hebrew Bible. 5 Vols. Lewiston; New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 1996. 
Price, James D. Exegesis and Pausal Forms with Non-Pausal Accents in the Hebrew Bible. A Paper for Presentation at the Southeastern Regional Meeting of The Evangelical Theological Society. 2006. URL:http://www.jamesdprice.com/images/Pausal_Forms_ETS_paper.pdf 
Reuchlin, Johannes. De accentibus et orthographia linguae Hebraicae: Libri tres. Haguenau, 1518. 176 s. 
Rosenbaum, Samuel. A Guide to Haftarah Chanting. New York: Ktav Publishing House Inc., 1973. 154 p. 
Rosenbaum, Samuel. A Guide to Torah Reading. New York: Ktav Publishing House Inc., 1982. 141 p. 
Rosenbaum, Samuel. A Guide to the Prayer Book for the High Holy Days. 1997. New York: Cantors Assembly, 122 p. 
Rosowsky, S. The Cantillation of the Bible: the Five Books of Moses. New York: The Reconstructionist Press, 1957. 669 p. 
Rubin, Emanuel. Rhythmic and Structural Aspects of the Masoretic Cantillation of the Pentateuch // Proceedings of the Eleventh World Congress of Jewish Studies. Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1994. Division D, Vol, 2. P. 219–226. 
Sefer Diḳduḳe ha-ṭeamim / Hrsg. von. Seligmann Baer; Hermann L Strack. Leipzig : L. Fernau, 1879. 
Seroussi, Edwin. In Search of Jewish Musical Antiquity in the 18th-century Venetian Ghetto: Reconsidering the Hebrew Melodies in Benedetto Marcello’s «Estro Poetico-Armonico» // The Jewish Quarterly Review. 2002, vol. 93, № 1–2. P. 149–200. 
Shiloah, Amnon. Jewish Musical Traditions. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1992. 274 p. 
Smith, John Arthur. Music in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity. Surrey (England); Burlington (USA): Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2011 г. 294 p. 
Spanier 1927 — Spanier, Artur. Die massoretischen Akzente : eine Darlegung ihres Systems nebst Beiträgen zum Verständnis ihrer Entwicklung. Berlin : Akad.-Verl., 1927. 142 s. 
Spiro, Pinchas. Haftara chanting. New York: The Broad of Jewish education, 1964. 218 p. (Переиздана в 1978 и 1994 гг.). 
Weil, Daniel M. Tentative Reconstruction of Masoretic Cantillation // Proceedings of the Tenth World Congress of Jewish Studies. Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1989. Div. D, vol. 2. P. 157–164. 
Weil, Daniel Meir. The Masoretic Chant of the Hebrew Bible. Jerusalem: Rubin Mass, 1996. 397 p. (English), 31 p. (Hebrew) 
Werner, Eric. A Voice Still Heard: The Sacred Songs of the Ashkenazic Jews. Press University Park and London: The Pennsylvania State University, 1976. XIII, 350 p. 
Wickes, William. Hebrew Accentuation. A Treatise on the Accentuation of the three so-colled Poetical Books of the Old Testament: Psalms, Proverbs and Job. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1881. XII, 120 p. 
Wickes, William. Hebrew Accentuation. A Treatise on the Accentuation of the Twenty one So-colled Prose Books of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1887. XVI, 156 p. 
Geniza Bible Fragments with Babylonian Massorah and Vocalization / Ed. by Israel Yeivin. 5 vol. Jerusalem: Makor Publishing, 1973. 
Yeivin, Israel. Introduction to the Tiberian Masorah / Translated by E. J. Revell. Scholars Press, 1980. 324 p. 
Goerwitz, Richard L., III. A New Masoretic “Spell Checker” or A Fast, Practical Method For Checking the Accentual Structure and Integrity Of Tiberian-Pointed Biblical Texts // Studies in Semitic and Afroasiatic Linguistics Presented to Gene B Gragg / Ed. Cynthia L. Miller. Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. 2008. P. 111–122. (Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization. Vol. 60). 
Richter, Helmut. Hebrew Cantillation Marks And Their Encoding. URL: http://www.mechon-mamre.org/c/hr/ 

Burns, Jeffrey. The Music of the Psalms, Proverbs and Job in the Hebrew Bible. Verlag Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 2011. P. XIII, 495 + CD. (Jüdische Musik, 9). 
Büchler, Adolf. Untersuchungen zur Entstehung und Entwicklung der hebräischen Accente. I. Theil: Die Ursprünge der verticalen Bestandtheile in der Accentuation des hebräischen Bibeltextes und ihre masoretische Bedeutung. Wien: Tempsky in Komm., 1891. 182 s. 
Hendel, Russell Jay. Biblical Cantillations // Proceedings of Bridges 2010: Mathermatics, Music, Art, Architecture, Cultire. 2010. P. 299–304. 
de Hoop, Raymond. The System of Masoretic Accentuation and Colometry in the Hebrew Bible. URL:https://www.academia.edu/1468512/The_System_of_the_Masoretic_Accentuation_in_the_Hebrew_Bible 
de Hoop, Raymond. The Te`amim (Masoretic Accents) and the Theory of Relativity. Paper read at the IOMS Munich. 2013. URL: https://www.academia.edu/4763669/The_Teamim_Masoretic_Accents_and_the_Theory_of_Relativity

The results of my research in the use of software to read the Hebrew Bible

I have written much on this blog of my progress in deciphering the meaning of the signs in the text of the Hebrew. Now for a simple example of uncertainty, science, and testing of the results. There is much more to do - particularly to teach scholars how to read music.

William Wickes writes in the 19th century on the accents in the Hebrew text and he has studied many manuscripts directly. You know what this would have been like in the 19th century. Travel, study, notes, and so on, a long process. The dedication and industry of such work is commendable and born I am sure of love of the subject (at least).

I won't go into detail on his naming of the accents and so on, but just move immediately to a single claim. He makes the claim (page 23) that "Logically, a verse may be closely connected with the one preceding or following it; but musically and accentually no such connection exists."

This is a testable claim. Science looks at the data and performs experiments to see if general statements such as this can stand scrutiny. Perhaps one exception would prove that such a general rule cannot stand. But there is not just one, there are examples on every page of scripture that deny that general statement. These could be proven by naming the accents that begin the verses of Proverbs 2. But you would not understand and neither would I want you to struggle through such an explanation.

As I demonstrated a few days ago (before I had even heard of Wickes' book though I had considered others such as Jacobson), the music tells us so much more simply than an arcane explanation. The music sings the complex connections between verses. No example I have looked at fails to illustrate this far in excess of what any 'punctuation' could do.

Simple conclusion. Tradition has lost the meaning of the signs. Sure, it knows they are somehow exegetical and musical, but it can no longer communicate this to the masses that would love to hear how that works. It has lost its way. If I have to read a complex treatise with 25 unpronounceable words and contorted 'simplification' about conjunctive and disjunctive hierarchical roles of unreadable diacritics, then I simply won't do it. If I have to listen to transparent and beautiful music and don't have to be told what I am hearing because it is obvious to me, then I will hear and love the result.

[Addendum] Tradition (Helmut Richter) occasionally results in a clear statement of purpose of the cantillation marks, but only clear from its own point of view. Then it states what can only be interpreted as a complete escape clause: "the real nesting levels stay nowhere constant and can jump up and down by arbitrary amounts."

Vantoura is transparent. The rules are easily learned. Sight reading is easily learned. The result is beauty. What's to argue about? Tradition is struggling under a falsely engineered explanation.

This results in explanations like the following: A sequence like officer servant duke king duke servant king servant emperor is fully permissible.

The scholars are not musicians and therefore will argue or explain only from that diacritic point of view. They will ask you to read a book instead of showing you the beauty of the word.

I have almost completed my transcription of the whole Bible. [The first complete set of files in the default mode should be done by the end of the first week in September.] My work is scientific and therefore repeatable by any competent programmer. It need not be lost. It follows a clear set of transcription rules such that no information is lost in the resulting music. (I could even keep the qere-ketiv distinctions but for the most part, though the programming supports this, I have chosen not to.)

If you want to see the work, the xml files are all at this link. To read them as music, you need a music program such as Musescore version 2 or above.

My work is dependent on the work of Suzanne Haik Vantoura, and all the software engineering that has gone into my company's own product GX-LEAF as well as the development of the MUSIC-XML language. Lots of dependencies for which I am grateful. When I began, I had no idea that this would be possible to complete. Now it is clear that it is for I have done it.

The entire Bible, chapter by chapter, is now available in Music XML form on my shared drive.

Wednesday, August 26, 2015

What are these accents in the OT?

There is little sense I suppose in arguing. It was Will Durant who said that "History is mostly guesswork, and the rest prejudice". I prefer to avoid the arguments in the religious world.

But I do ask: What do all these accents in the Old Testament signify? With thanks to some negative comments on Haik-Vantoura's system in the Academia site, I now know there are a few more resources to study on the accents - e.g. this one from archive.org: A treatise on the accentuation of the three so-called poetical books on the Old Testament, Psalms, Proverbs, and Job, with an appendix containing the treatise, assigned to R. Jehuda Ben-Bil'am, on the same subject, in the original Arabic.

Well, its not in the original Arabic or I would not be reading it. And it's not too likely that I will read the whole thing very quickly in any case. But a few paragraphs maybe. It will be a counterfoil to Jacobson.

One thing is sure, if it were not for Vantoura's system, I would never (and I mean never) have studied or appreciated these signs. But the music is very revealing. And the more I reveal, the more people will see and hear that there is much to her system that reveals the mind of the poet.

The negative comments I received on my paper (copy is here) were these. The first led me directly to the above link (though his link is commercial and incomplete.)
I didn't have time to comment before the session closed. I wanted to point out an error regarding the two sets of te'amim in the Decalogue. What you missed in the paper is that the te'amim have another function, that of parsing the verse into lexical units. For more on this you should have a look at the following classic work by William Wickes: here The two sets of te'amim reflect two reading modes, one to be used in synagogue, and one for study. The reading in synagogue splits the Decalogue more obviously into 10 distinct utterances, and so necessitates a different set of te'amim of accommodate the different lexical parsing.
Now this is news to me and quite different from Vantoura's suggestion. Worth some consideration.

My response: Thank you for the interesting observation. This is certainly a possibility. I did not expect much discussion. Vantoura considered the extra accents as music in any case. I suspect she and her father, a rabbi, did not know this other possible usage. Besides modern (i.e. post 12th century) explanations of the accents, do you have some idea of the origin of these two sets of them in the Decalogue?

The second is less revealing:
I can not congratulate you. The theory of Haïk-Vantoura is based on wrong data. Vantoura knew little about function of the te'amim. She interpreted them incorrectly. Vantoura's reconstruction differ fundamentally with the synagogue practice of reading Torah and with the opinion of the leading researchers on cantillation marks.
This last sentence is a true statement. Unfortunately, the first statements are guesswork and prejudice.

My response: I understand that what you say is true. But I would hope you could give more reason than just disagreement. Vantoura's interpretation is the inference of a musician and it reveals function that is quite brilliant and beautiful. It also shows a carefully coded internally consistent system that is typical of human engineering. What is the right data and how can it be inferred and confirmed as correct?

The test case for Vantoura's methods remains for me their application to Psalm 114 where they resolve into the famous tune: tonus peregrinus. See more in The Songs of Ascents by David Mitchell (Precentor, Holy Trinity, Brussels).

I should also say that her method leads to the ability to sight-read the accents and to perform them with ordinary people. We have done so at St Barnabas on several occasions in both Hebrew and English. One would not want to do this every week, but the results strike people deeply and make the Old Testament lessons and psalms stand out in all their drama, foreignness, and beauty.