Friday, July 29, 2016

Job 32

I never would have believed, as I have said before, that Job would be a respite in this translation experience. When I come back to Job, I feel at home! I have fewer than 10 chapters left. What will I do when it is done?

Elihu is a character all his own. He has a long and somewhat repetitive introduction. But verse 5, for instance, has no rest, neither atnah nor ole-veyored. The music sings the restlessness of the lack of answer for Job from 'the three persons'. That phrase of mine is an accident, but it suggests that the three are an impersonal trinity. Three without conversation.

Verse 1 is without rest. Verse 2 divides in three as does verse 3. Verse 4 a dual division, and verse 5 like verse 1 without rest.  I resisted the image of raisin-cakes in verse 5.

Then we are back into poetic normalcy, beginning with a tricolon. I warm to the apparently bombastic Elihu. It is not difficult to guess why from my translation of this chapter. Let's see if the attribution holds.
Job 32
וַֽיִּשְׁבְּת֡וּ שְׁלֹ֤שֶׁת הָאֲנָשִׁ֣ים הָ֭אֵלֶּה מֵעֲנ֣וֹת אֶת־אִיּ֑וֹב כִּ֤י ה֖וּא צַדִּ֣יק בְּעֵינָֽיו פ 1 So they ceased, these three persons, from answering Job for he was a righteous one in his eyes. P 28

וַיִּ֤חַר אַ֨ף ׀ אֱלִיה֣וּא בֶן־בַּרַכְאֵ֣ל הַבּוּזִי֮ מִמִּשְׁפַּ֪חַ֫ת רָ֥ם
בְּ֭אִיּוֹב חָרָ֣ה אַפּ֑וֹ
עַֽל־צַדְּק֥וֹ נַ֝פְשׁ֗וֹ מֵאֱלֹהִֽים
2 And it burned, the anger of Elihu child of Barakel the Buzite from the family of Ram,
against Job, his anger burned,
over his justifying his very self from God.
19
7
9
וּבִשְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת רֵעָיו֮ חָרָ֪ה אַ֫פּ֥וֹ
עַ֤ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־מָצְא֣וּ מַעֲנֶ֑ה
וַ֝יַּרְשִׁ֗יעוּ אֶת־אִיּֽוֹב
3 And against his three associates his anger burned,
in that they had not found an answer,
but they condemned Job.
10
9
7
וֶֽאֱלִיה֗וּ חִכָּ֣ה אֶת־אִ֭יּוֹב בִּדְבָרִ֑ים
כִּ֤י זְֽקֵנִים־הֵ֖מָּה מִמֶּ֣נּוּ לְיָמִֽים
4 But Elihu tarried for Job in words,
for elders they were compared to him, of days.
12
12
וַיַּ֤רְא אֱלִיה֗וּא כִּ֘י אֵ֤ין מַעֲנֶ֗ה בְּ֭פִי שְׁלֹ֥שֶׁת הָאֲנָשִׁ֗ים וַיִּ֥חַר אַפּֽוֹ פ 5 And Elihu saw that there was no answer in the mouth of the three persons and his anger burned. 25
וַיַּ֤עַן ׀ אֱלִיה֖וּא בֶן־בַּֽרַכְאֵ֥ל הַבּוּזִ֗י וַיֹּ֫אמַ֥ר
צָ֘עִ֤יר אֲנִ֣י לְ֭יָמִים וְאַתֶּ֣ם יְשִׁישִׁ֑ים
עַל־כֵּ֖ן זָחַ֥לְתִּי וָֽאִירָ֓א ׀‬ מֵחַוֺּ֖ת דֵּעִ֣י אֶתְכֶֽם
6 And Elihu answered, child of Barakel the Buzite, and said:
Diminutive am I of days, but you are wizened,
so I was perturbed and I feared to breathe my opinion to you.
16
13
15
אָ֭מַרְתִּי יָמִ֣ים יְדַבֵּ֑רוּ
וְרֹ֥ב שָׁ֝נִ֗ים יֹדִ֥יעוּ חָכְמָֽה
7 I said, Days should speak,
and many years make known wisdom.
9
9
אָ֭כֵן רֽוּחַ־הִ֣יא בֶאֱנ֑וֹשׁ
וְנִשְׁמַ֖ת שַׁדַּ֣י תְּבִינֵֽם
8 Nevertheless a spirit it is in a mortal,
and the breath of the Sufficient gives discernment.
7
8
לֹֽא־רַבִּ֥ים יֶחְכָּ֑מוּ
וּ֝זְקֵנִ֗ים יָבִ֥ינוּ מִשְׁפָּֽט
9 Not many are shrewd,
nor do the aged discern judgment.
5
8
לָכֵ֣ן אָ֭מַרְתִּי שִׁמְעָה־לִּ֑י
אֲחַוֶּ֖ה דֵּעִ֣י אַף־אָֽנִי
10 So I said, Hear me.
I am breathing my knowledge, indeed I am.
8
8
הֵ֤ן הוֹחַ֨לְתִּי לְֽדִבְרֵיכֶ֗ם אָ֭זִין עַד־תְּב֥וּנֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם
עַֽד־תַּחְקְר֥וּן מִלִּֽין
11 Lo, I hoped for your words. I gave ear to your discernment,
even as you examined speeches.
16
6
וְעָֽדֵיכֶ֗ם אֶתְבּ֫וֹנָ֥ן
וְהִנֵּ֤ה אֵ֣ין לְאִיּ֣וֹב מוֹכִ֑יחַ
עוֹנֶ֖ה אֲמָרָ֣יו מִכֶּֽם
12 And you I understood,
and behold there is not for Job a referee,
one to answer his sayings, from you,
7
10
7
פֶּן־תֹּ֣֭אמְרוּ מָצָ֣אנוּ חָכְמָ֑ה
אֵ֖ל יִדְּפֶ֣נּוּ לֹא־אִֽישׁ
13 lest you should say, We have found wisdom.
The One will blow him away, not a man.
8
6
וְלֹא־עָרַ֣ךְ אֵלַ֣י מִלִּ֑ין
וּ֝בְאִמְרֵיכֶ֗ם לֹ֣א אֲשִׁיבֶֽנּוּ
14 And he has not arranged speeches against me,
so with your sayings, I will not turn him.
7
9
חַ֭תּוּ לֹא־עָ֣נוּ ע֑וֹד
הֶעְתִּ֖יקוּ מֵהֶ֣ם מִלִּֽים
15 They were dismayed. They did not answer further.
Speeches from them were shifted.
5
7
וְ֭הוֹחַלְתִּי כִּי־לֹ֣א יְדַבֵּ֑רוּ
כִּ֥י עָ֝מְד֗וּ לֹא־עָ֥נוּ עֽוֹד
16 And I hoped. (For they did not speak,
for they stood. They did not answer any more.)
9
6
אַעֲנֶ֣ה אַף־אֲנִ֣י חֶלְקִ֑י
אֲחַוֶּ֖ה דֵעִ֣י אַף־אָֽנִי
17 I would answer. Indeed, myself, my share
I will breathe. My opinion. Indeed myself.
8
8
כִּ֭י מָלֵ֣תִי מִלִּ֑ים
הֱ֝צִיקַ֗תְנִי ר֣וּחַ בִּטְנִֽי
18 For I am full of speeches.
I am distressed by the spirit of my belly.
6
8
הִנֵּֽה־בִטְנִ֗י כְּיַ֥יִן לֹא־יִפָּתֵ֑חַ
כְּאֹב֥וֹת חֲ֝דָשִׁ֗ים יִבָּקֵֽעַ
19 Behold my belly is as wine without a vent,
as new wineskins, it will split.
10
10
אֲדַבְּרָ֥ה וְיִֽרְוַֽח־לִ֑י
אֶפְתַּ֖ח שְׂפָתַ֣י וְאֶֽעֱנֶֽה
20 I will speak so I may have my spirit.
I will open my lips so I may answer.
7
9
אַל־נָ֭א אֶשָּׂ֣א פְנֵי־אִ֑ישׁ
וְאֶל־אָ֝דָ֗ם לֹ֣א אֲכַנֶּֽה
21 Please let me not lift up preference for anyone,
nor let me entitle a human.
7
8
כִּ֤י לֹ֣א יָדַ֣עְתִּי אֲכַנֶּ֑ה
כִּ֝מְעַ֗ט יִשָּׂאֵ֥נִי עֹשֵֽׂנִי
22 For I do not know how to entitle.
As a hint, he who made me will lift me up.
8
9

Monday, July 25, 2016

Judges 1

I suspect this first chapter is intended as formative for the reader by the author. The tribes are reported as compromising with total conquest. Instead of utter destruction, it appears that the Israelites had a policy of enforced service or slavery for the non-Israelite inhabitants of the land. What this will lead to I suppose I will find out.

By happy coincidence, Claude Mariottini wrote an interesting post on a rare word in Judges 1:14. I probably would not have noticed this if he had not posted on it. And I am grateful. While rare words are one problem, common words contain many more problems for a translator. It is not just the rare words that require decisions, but also the very common ones.

E.g. in Judges 1:10, there is one of several parenthetical comments on naming of towns: now the name of Hebron before was Kirjatharba (KJV). The word rendered as ‘now’ is the very common connector for and, or, then, now and several other possibilities. It is the single letter vav or waw, a vertical stroke, ו. Vav וו (literally) is a hook. How does one chose the English gloss for such a language hook?

In this same phrase is the word before, here rendered as a temporal preposition. This word (PNH, פנה) is also very common and is the same word as face, or presence, or before as a spatial preposition. Also here is the very common homonym shem (שׁם) which is either name or there. So even with common words, there are many decisions to make.

Re the ‘meaning’ of this parenthesis, I wondered: As for ‘the town of four’, (Kirjatharba), do you think there is any significance to the name here, or is it as mundane as saying that Montreal used to be known Hochelaga? (But that could be significant.) And my Hebrew coach replied: Yes, it’s as mundane as “Montreal used to be known as Hochelaga”. Commentaries are predominantly of the opinion that “Arba” was the name of the Canaanite who lived there; others think that perhaps the town was a merger of four villages.
Judges 1
וַיְהִ֗י אַחֲרֵי֙ מ֣וֹת יְהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ וַֽיִּשְׁאֲלוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בַּיהוָ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר
מִ֣י יַעֲלֶה־לָּ֧נוּ אֶל־הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֛י בַּתְּחִלָּ֖ה לְהִלָּ֥חֶם בּֽוֹ
1And it was after the death of Joshua, and the children of Israel asked Yahweh saying,
Who will go up for us to the Canaanite to start to fight him?
23
19
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָ֖ה יְהוּדָ֣ה יַעֲלֶ֑ה
הִנֵּ֛ה נָתַ֥תִּי אֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ בְּיָדֽוֹ
2And Yahweh said, Judah will go up.
Behold I gave the land into his hand.
11
12
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוּדָה֩ לְשִׁמְע֨וֹן אָחִ֜יו עֲלֵ֧ה אִתִּ֣י בְגוֹרָלִ֗י וְנִֽלָּחֲמָה֙ בַּֽכְּנַעֲנִ֔י וְהָלַכְתִּ֧י גַם־אֲנִ֛י אִתְּךָ֖ בְּגוֹרָלֶ֑ךָ
וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ אִתּ֖וֹ שִׁמְעֽוֹן
3And Judah said to Simeon his brother, Go up with me in my lot that we may fight against the Caananite, and I will go, even I with you in your lot.
and Simeon came with him.
42
7
וַיַּ֣עַל יְהוּדָ֔ה וַיִּתֵּ֧ן יְהוָ֛ה אֶת־הַכְּנַעֲנִ֥י וְהַפְּרִזִּ֖י בְּיָדָ֑ם
וַיַּכּ֣וּם בְּבֶ֔זֶק עֲשֶׂ֥רֶת אֲלָפִ֖ים אִֽישׁ
4And Judah went up and Yahweh gave the Canaanite and the Perizzite into their hand.
And they struck them in Sudden Epiphany ten thousand each.
23
13
וַֽ֠יִּמְצְאוּ אֶת־אֲדֹנִ֥י בֶ֙זֶק֙ בְּבֶ֔זֶק וַיִּֽלָּחֲמ֖וּ בּ֑וֹ
וַיַּכּ֕וּ אֶת־הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֖י וְאֶת־הַפְּרִזִּֽי
5And they found the Lord of Sudden Epiphany in Sudden Epiphany and they fought him,
and they struck the Canaanite and the Perizzite.
19
13
וַיָּ֙נָס֙ אֲדֹ֣נִי בֶ֔זֶק וַֽיִּרְדְּפ֖וּ אַחֲרָ֑יו
וַיֹּאחֲז֣וּ אֹת֔וֹ וַֽיְקַצְּצ֔וּ אֶת־בְּהֹנ֥וֹת יָדָ֖יו וְרַגְלָֽיו
6And the Lord of Sudden Epiphany withdrew and they pursued after him,
and grasped him and sundered the thick digits of his hands and his feet.
15
18
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲדֹֽנִי־בֶ֗זֶק שִׁבְעִ֣ים ׀ מְלָכִ֡ים בְּֽהֹנוֹת֩ יְדֵיהֶ֨ם וְרַגְלֵיהֶ֜ם מְקֻצָּצִ֗ים הָי֤וּ מְלַקְּטִים֙ תַּ֣חַת שֻׁלְחָנִ֔י כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂ֔יתִי כֵּ֥ן שִׁלַּם־לִ֖י אֱלֹהִ֑ים
וַיְבִיאֻ֥הוּ יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם וַיָּ֥מָת שָֽׁם
7And the Lord of Sudden Epiphany said, Seventy sovereigns, the thick digits of their hands and their feet sundered, were gleaning under my table. As I have done, so God has repaid me.
And they brought him to Jerusalem and he died there.
49
12
וַיִּלָּחֲמ֤וּ בְנֵֽי־יְהוּדָה֙ בִּיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם וַיִּלְכְּד֣וּ אוֹתָ֔הּ וַיַּכּ֖וּהָ לְפִי־חָ֑רֶב
וְאֶת־הָעִ֖יר שִׁלְּח֥וּ בָאֵֽשׁ
8And the children of Judah fought in Jerusalem, and they conquered her and struck her with the edge of the sword, and they set loose fire in the city.27
8
וְאַחַ֗ר יָֽרְדוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה לְהִלָּחֵ֖ם בַּֽכְּנַעֲנִ֑י
יוֹשֵׁ֣ב הָהָ֔ר וְהַנֶּ֖גֶב וְהַשְּׁפֵלָֽה
9And after the children of Judah came down to fight against the Caananite,
those inhabiting the hill and the Negev and the lowly places.
18
12
וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֗ה אֶל־הַֽכְּנַעֲנִי֙ הַיּוֹשֵׁ֣ב בְּחֶבְר֔וֹן וְשֵׁם־חֶבְר֥וֹן לְפָנִ֖ים קִרְיַ֣ת אַרְבַּ֑ע
וַיַּכּ֛וּ אֶת־שֵׁשַׁ֥י וְאֶת־אֲחִימַ֖ן וְאֶת־תַּלְמָֽי
10And Judah went to the Canaanite that inhabits Hebron. (Now the name Hebron before was The Town of Four.)
And they struck Sheshai and Achiman and Talmai.
28
15
וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ מִשָּׁ֔ם אֶל־יוֹשְׁבֵ֖י דְּבִ֑יר
וְשֵׁם־דְּבִ֥יר לְפָנִ֖ים קִרְיַת־סֵֽפֶר
11And he went from there to the inhabitants of Devir.
(Now the name of Devir before was the town of Sapphire.)
10
11
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר כָּלֵ֔ב אֲשֶׁר־יַכֶּ֥ה אֶת־קִרְיַת־סֵ֖פֶר וּלְכָדָ֑הּ
וְנָתַ֥תִּי ל֛וֹ אֶת־עַכְסָ֥ה בִתִּ֖י לְאִשָּֽׁה
12And Caleb said, Whoever strikes the town of Sapphire and conquers it,
I will give to him Akesah my daughter as wife.
17
13
וַֽיִּלְכְּדָהּ֙ עָתְנִיאֵ֣ל בֶּן־קְנַ֔ז אֲחִ֥י כָלֵ֖ב הַקָּטֹ֣ן מִמֶּ֑נּוּ
וַיִּתֶּן־ל֛וֹ אֶת־עַכְסָ֥ה בִתּ֖וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה
13And Othniel conquered it, child of Qenaz, Caleb's brother the youngest from him.
So he gave him Akesah his daughter as wife.
20
12
וַיְהִ֣י בְּבוֹאָ֗הּ וַתְּסִיתֵ֙הוּ֙ לִשְׁא֤וֹל מֵֽאֵת־אָבִ֙יהָ֙ הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה וַתִּצְנַ֖ח מֵעַ֣ל הַחֲמ֑וֹר
וַיֹּֽאמֶר־לָ֥הּ כָּלֵ֖ב מַה־לָּֽךְ
14And it happened when she came that she incited him to ask the field from her father,
she put herself down from the ass, and Caleb said to her, What is it to you?
27
8
וַתֹּ֨אמֶר ל֜וֹ הָֽבָה־לִּ֣י בְרָכָ֗ה כִּ֣י אֶ֤רֶץ הַנֶּ֙גֶב֙ נְתַתָּ֔נִי וְנָתַתָּ֥ה לִ֖י גֻּלֹּ֣ת מָ֑יִם
וַיִּתֶּן־לָ֣הּ כָּלֵ֗ב אֵ֚ת גֻּלֹּ֣ת עִלִּ֔ית וְאֵ֖ת גֻּלֹּ֥ת תַּחְתִּֽית
15And she said to him, Provide me a blessing. For the land of the Negeb you gave me. So give me rolling water.
And gave Caleb to her the upper rollers and the lower rollers.
29
17
וּבְנֵ֣י קֵינִי֩ חֹתֵ֨ן מֹשֶׁ֜ה עָל֨וּ מֵעִ֤יר הַתְּמָרִים֙ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה מִדְבַּ֣ר יְהוּדָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּנֶ֣גֶב עֲרָ֑ד
וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב אֶת־הָעָֽם
16And the children of the Kenite, Moses' father-in-law, went up from the city of the palm trees with the children of Judah to the wilderness of Judah, which is in the Negev of Arad,
and they went and inhabited with the people.
33
9
וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ יְהוּדָה֙ אֶת־שִׁמְע֣וֹן אָחִ֔יו וַיַּכּ֕וּ אֶת־הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֖י יוֹשֵׁ֣ב צְפַ֑ת
וַיַּחֲרִ֣ימוּ אוֹתָ֔הּ וַיִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שֵׁם־הָעִ֖יר חָרְמָֽה
17And Judah went with Simeon his brother and they struck the Canaanite, those inhabiting Tsephath,
and they utterly destroyed it. And he called the name of the city, Utter-Destruction.
23
16
וַיִּלְכֹּ֤ד יְהוּדָה֙ אֶת־עַזָּ֣ה וְאֶת־גְּבוּלָ֔הּ וְאֶֽת־אַשְׁקְל֖וֹן וְאֶת־גְּבוּלָ֑הּ
וְאֶת־עֶקְר֖וֹן וְאֶת־גְּבוּלָֽהּ
18And Judah conquered Gaza and her borders and Askelon and her borders,
and Eqron and her borders.
24
9
וַיְהִ֤י יְהוָה֙ אֶתּ־יְהוּדָ֔ה וַיֹּ֖רֶשׁ אֶת־הָהָ֑ר
כִּ֣י לֹ֤א לְהוֹרִישׁ֙ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵ֣י הָעֵ֔מֶק כִּי־רֶ֥כֶב בַּרְזֶ֖ל לָהֶֽם
19And Yahweh was with Judah and he dispossessed the hill,
but not to dispossess the inhabitants of the valley, for they had the iron chariot.
14
17
וַיִּתְּנ֤וּ לְכָלֵב֙ אֶת־חֶבְר֔וֹן כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּ֣ר מֹשֶׁ֑ה
וַיּ֣וֹרֶשׁ מִשָּׁ֔ם אֶת־שְׁלֹשָׁ֖ה בְּנֵ֥י הָעֲנָֽק
20And they gave Hebron to Caleb as Moses spoke,
and they dispossessed from there the three children of Anaq.
16
14
וְאֶת־הַיְבוּסִי֙ יֹשֵׁ֣ב יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֔ם לֹ֥א הוֹרִ֖ישׁוּ בְּנֵ֣י בִנְיָמִ֑ן
וַיֵּ֨שֶׁב הַיְבוּסִ֜י אֶת־בְּנֵ֤י בִנְיָמִן֙ בִּיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה
21And the Jebusite, the inhabitant of Jerusalem, the children of Benjamin did not dispossess.
The Jebusite has settled with the children of Benjamin in Jerusalem until this day.
20
21
וַיַּעֲל֧וּ בֵית־יוֹסֵ֛ף גַּם־הֵ֖ם בֵּֽית־אֵ֑ל
וַֽיהוָ֖ה עִמָּֽם
22And the house of Joseph they came up, even them, to Bethel,
and Yahweh with them.
11
4
וַיָּתִ֥ירוּ בֵית־יוֹסֵ֖ף בְּבֵֽית־אֵ֑ל
וְשֵׁם־הָעִ֥יר לְפָנִ֖ים לֽוּז
23And the house of Joseph explored in Bethel.
(Now the name of the city before was Luz.)
10
8
וַיִּרְאוּ֙ הַשֹּׁ֣מְרִ֔ים אִ֖ישׁ יוֹצֵ֣א מִן־הָעִ֑יר
וַיֹּ֣אמְרוּ ל֗וֹ הַרְאֵ֤נוּ נָא֙ אֶת־מְב֣וֹא הָעִ֔יר וְעָשִׂ֥ינוּ עִמְּךָ֖ חָֽסֶד
24And the guards saw a man coming forth from the city,
and they said to him, Show us, please, the entrance to the city and we will do your people kindness.
12
21
וַיַּרְאֵם֙ אֶת־מְב֣וֹא הָעִ֔יר וַיַּכּ֥וּ אֶת־הָעִ֖יר לְפִי־חָ֑רֶב
וְאֶת־הָאִ֥ישׁ וְאֶת־כָּל־מִשְׁפַּחְתּ֖וֹ שִׁלֵּֽחוּ
25And he showed them the entrance to the city and they struck the city with the edge of the sword,
but the man and all his family they set loose.
17
13
וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ הָאִ֔ישׁ אֶ֖רֶץ הַחִתִּ֑ים
וַיִּ֣בֶן עִ֗יר וַיִּקְרָ֤א שְׁמָהּ֙ ל֔וּז ה֣וּא שְׁמָ֔הּ עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה
26And the man went to the land of the Hittites,
and he built a city, and he called its name Luz. It is there to this day.
10
18
וְלֹא־הוֹרִ֣ישׁ מְנַשֶּׁ֗ה אֶת־בֵּית־שְׁאָ֣ן וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֶיהָ֮ וְאֶת־תַּעְנַ֣ךְ וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֶיהָ֒ וְאֶת־יֹשְׁבֵ֨י ד֜וֹר וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֶ֗יהָ וְאֶת־יוֹשְׁבֵ֤י יִבְלְעָם֙ וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֶ֔יהָ וְאֶת־יוֹשְׁבֵ֥י מְגִדּ֖וֹ וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֶ֑יהָ
וַיּ֙וֹאֶל֙ הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֔י לָשֶׁ֖בֶת בָּאָ֥רֶץ הַזֹּֽאת
27And Manasseh had not dispossessed the house of Shean and its built-up areas, nor Taanah and its built-up areas, nor the inhabitants of Dor, and its built-up areas, nor those inhabiting Yiblam and its built-up areas, nor those inhabiting Megiddo and its built-up areas,
but the Canaanite attempted to settle in that land.
63
15
וַֽיְהִי֙ כִּֽי־חָזַ֣ק יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיָּ֥שֶׂם אֶת־הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֖י לָמַ֑ס
וְהוֹרֵ֖ישׁ לֹ֥א הוֹרִישֽׁוֹ
28And it happened that Israel was encouraged, and set up the Canaanite in forced service.
So dispossession was not dispossession.
17
7
וְאֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ לֹ֣א הוֹרִ֔ישׁ אֶת־הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֖י הַיּוֹשֵׁ֣ב בְּגָ֑זֶר
וַיֵּ֧שֶׁב הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֛י בְּקִרְבּ֖וֹ בְּגָֽזֶר
29And Ephraim had not dispossessed the Canaanite that was settled in Gezer,
but the Canaanite settled with him in Gezer.
17
13
זְבוּלֻ֗ן לֹ֤א הוֹרִישׁ֙ אֶת־יוֹשְׁבֵ֣י קִטְר֔וֹן וְאֶת־יוֹשְׁבֵ֖י נַהֲלֹ֑ל
וַיֵּ֤שֶׁב הַֽכְּנַעֲנִי֙ בְּקִרְבּ֔וֹ וַיִּֽהְי֖וּ לָמַֽס
30Zebulun had not dispossessed those inhabiting Kitron nor the inhabitants of Nahalol,
but the Canaanite settled with him and they were in forced service.
18
15
אָשֵׁ֗ר לֹ֤א הוֹרִישׁ֙ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵ֣י עַכּ֔וֹ וְאֶת־יוֹשְׁבֵ֖י צִיד֑וֹן
וְאֶת־אַחְלָ֤ב וְאֶת־אַכְזִיב֙ וְאֶת־חֶלְבָּ֔ה וְאֶת־אֲפִ֖יק וְאֶת־רְחֹֽב
31Asher had not dispossessed the inhabitants of Ako nor those inhabiting Sidon,
nor Achlab nor Akzib nor Chelebah nor of the river channel nor of the wide open.
16
20
וַיֵּ֙שֶׁב֙ הָאָ֣שֵׁרִ֔י בְּקֶ֥רֶב הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֖י יֹשְׁבֵ֣י הָאָ֑רֶץ
כִּ֖י לֹ֥א הוֹרִישֽׁוֹ
32But the Asherites inhabited cheek by jowl with the Canaanite inhabitants of the land,
for they did not effect dispossession.
19
5
נַפְתָּלִ֗י לֹֽא־הוֹרִ֞ישׁ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵ֤י בֵֽית־שֶׁ֙מֶשׁ֙ וְאֶת־יֹשְׁבֵ֣י בֵית־עֲנָ֔ת וַיֵּ֕שֶׁב בְּקֶ֥רֶב הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֖י יֹשְׁבֵ֣י הָאָ֑רֶץ
וְיֹשְׁבֵ֤י בֵֽית־שֶׁ֙מֶשׁ֙ וּבֵ֣ית עֲנָ֔ת הָי֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם לָמַֽס
33Naphtali had not dispossessed the inhabitants of the house of the sun nor the inhabitants of the house of Anah but settled cheek by jowl with the Canaanite, those inhabiting the land.
And the inhabitants of the house of the sun and the house of Anah were for them in forced service.
33
16
וַיִּלְחֲצ֧וּ הָאֱמֹרִ֛י אֶת־בְּנֵי־דָ֖ן הָהָ֑רָה
כִּי־לֹ֥א נְתָנ֖וֹ לָרֶ֥דֶת לָעֵֽמֶק
34And the Amorite kept a grip on the children of Dan toward the mountain,
for not they would permit descent to the valley.
15
10
וַיּ֤וֹאֶל הָֽאֱמֹרִי֙ לָשֶׁ֣בֶת בְּהַר־חֶ֔רֶס בְּאַיָּל֖וֹן וּבְשַֽׁעַלְבִ֑ים
וַתִּכְבַּד֙ יַ֣ד בֵּית־יוֹסֵ֔ף וַיִּהְי֖וּ לָמַֽס
35But the Amorite attempted to settle in the hill of Cheres in Ailon in Shaalbim,
but the hand of the house of Joseph was heavy and they were in forced service.
22
12
וּגְבוּל֙ הָאֱמֹרִ֔י מִֽמַּעֲלֵ֖ה עַקְרַבִּ֑ים
מֵהַסֶּ֖לַע וָמָֽעְלָה
36And the borders of the Amorite were from the ascents of the scorpions,
from the cliff and upward.
13
7

Sunday, July 17, 2016

Deuteronomy 27

Example of the music of the responsive section

Deuteronomy 27
וַיְצַ֤ו מֹשֶׁה֙ וְזִקְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֶת־הָעָ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר
שָׁמֹר֙ אֶת־כָּל־הַמִּצְוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָנֹכִ֛י מְצַוֶּ֥ה אֶתְכֶ֖ם הַיּֽוֹם
1 And Moses and the elders of Israel commanded the people saying,
Keep all the commandment that I myself have commanded you today.
15
19
וְהָיָ֗ה בַּיּוֹם֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תַּעַבְר֣וּ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן֒ אֶל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֣ן לָ֑ךְ
וַהֲקֵמֹתָ֤ לְךָ֙ אֲבָנִ֣ים גְּדֹל֔וֹת וְשַׂדְתָּ֥ אֹתָ֖ם בַּשִּֽׂיד
2 And it will happen in the day that you cross over the Jordan to the land that Yahweh your God is giving to you,
that you will place for yourself great stones and lime them with lime.
29
20
וְכָתַבְתָּ֣ עֲלֵיהֶ֗ן אֶֽת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֛י הַתּוֹרָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את בְּעָבְרֶ֑ךָ
לְמַ֡עַן אֲשֶׁר֩ תָּבֹ֨א אֶל־הָאָ֜רֶץ אֲ‍ֽשֶׁר־יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֣יךָ ׀ נֹתֵ֣ן לְךָ֗ אֶ֣רֶץ זָבַ֤ת חָלָב֙ וּדְבַ֔שׁ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבֶּ֛ר יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵֽי־אֲבֹתֶ֖יךָ לָֽךְ
3 And you will write on them all the words of this instruction when you cross over,
in order that you may enter into the land that Yahweh your God is giving to you, a land gushing with milk and honey, as Yahweh the God of your ancestors spoke to you.
20
46
וְהָיָה֮ בְּעָבְרְכֶ֣ם אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן֒ תָּקִ֜ימוּ אֶת־הָאֲבָנִ֣ים הָאֵ֗לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָנֹכִ֜י מְצַוֶּ֥ה אֶתְכֶ֛ם הַיּ֖וֹם בְּהַ֣ר עֵיבָ֑ל
וְשַׂדְתָּ֥ אוֹתָ֖ם בַּשִּֽׂיד
4 And it will happen when you are crossing over the Jordan you will place these stones that I myself have commanded you today on the hill of Eival,
and lime them with lime.
38
7
וּבָנִ֤יתָ שָּׁם֙ מִזְבֵּ֔חַ לַיהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ
מִזְבַּ֣ח אֲבָנִ֔ים לֹא־תָנִ֥יף עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם בַּרְזֶֽל
5 And you will build there an altar to Yahweh your God,
an altar of stones. You will not brandish iron on them.
14
12
אֲבָנִ֤ים שְׁלֵמוֹת֙ תִּבְנֶ֔ה אֶת־מִזְבַּ֖ח יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ
וְהַעֲלִ֤יתָ עָלָיו֙ עוֹלֹ֔ת לַיהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ
6 With whole stones you will build the altar of Yahweh your God,
and you will offer up on it burnt offerings to Yahweh your God.
17
15
וְזָבַחְתָּ֥ שְׁלָמִ֖ים וְאָכַ֣לְתָּ שָּׁ֑ם
וְשָׂ֣מַחְתָּ֔ לִפְנֵ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ
7 And you will offer peace offerings and you will eat there,
and be glad in the presence of Yahweh your God.
12
12
וְכָתַבְתָּ֣ עַל־הָאֲבָנִ֗ים אֶֽת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֛י הַתּוֹרָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את בַּאֵ֥ר הֵיטֵֽב 8 And you will write on the stones all the words of this instruction precisely to be done well. 22
וַיְדַבֵּ֤ר מֹשֶׁה֙ וְהַכֹּהֲנִ֣ים הַלְוִיִּ֔ם אֶ֥ל כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר
הַסְכֵּ֤ת ׀ וּשְׁמַע֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הַיּ֤וֹם הַזֶּה֙ נִהְיֵ֣יתָֽ לְעָ֔ם לַיהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ
9 And Moses and the priests (the Levites) spoke to all Israel saying,
Take heed and hear, Israel. This day you have become the people of Yahweh your God.
20
22
וְשָׁ֣מַעְתָּ֔ בְּק֖וֹל יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ
וְעָשִׂ֤יתָ אֶת־מִצְוֺתָו֙ וְאֶת־חֻקָּ֔יו אֲשֶׁ֛ר אָנֹכִ֥י מְצַוְּךָ֖ הַיּֽוֹם
10 And you will hear with the voice of Yahweh your God,
and you will do his commandment and his statutes which I am commanding you today.
12
22
וַיְצַ֤ו מֹשֶׁה֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא לֵאמֹֽר 11 And Moses commanded the people in that day, saying: 13
אֵ֠לֶּה יַֽעַמְד֞וּ לְבָרֵ֤ךְ אֶת־הָעָם֙ עַל־הַ֣ר גְּרִזִ֔ים בְּעָבְרְכֶ֖ם אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן
שִׁמְעוֹן֙ וְלֵוִ֣י וִֽיהוּדָ֔ה וְיִשָּׂשכָ֖ר וְיוֹסֵ֥ף וּבִנְיָמִֽן
12 These will stand to bless the people against the hill of Gerizim when you are crossing over the Jordan,
Simeon and Levi and Judah and Issachar and Joseph and Benjamin,
24
19
וְאֵ֛לֶּה יַֽעַמְד֥וּ עַל־הַקְּלָלָ֖ה בְּהַ֣ר עֵיבָ֑ל
רְאוּבֵן֙ גָּ֣ד וְאָשֵׁ֔ר וּזְבוּלֻ֖ן דָּ֥ן וְנַפְתָּלִֽי
13 And these will stand against denial on the hill of Eival,
Reuben Gad and Asher, and Zebulun Dan and Naphtali.
14
15
וְעָנ֣וּ הַלְוִיִּ֗ם וְאָֽמְר֛וּ אֶל־כָּל־אִ֥ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל ק֥וֹל רָֽם 14 And the Levites will answer and they will say to everyone of Israel in a voice of exaltation: 17
אָר֣וּר הָאִ֡ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יַעֲשֶׂה֩ פֶ֨סֶל וּמַסֵּכָ֜ה תּוֹעֲבַ֣ת יְהוָ֗ה מַעֲשֵׂ֛ה יְדֵ֥י חָרָ֖שׁ וְשָׂ֣ם בַּסָּ֑תֶר
וְעָנ֧וּ כָל־הָעָ֛ם וְאָמְר֖וּ אָמֵֽן
15 Cursed the person that makes a graven image or of molten metal, an abomination to Yahweh, a deed of the hands of artifice and set up in secret,
and all the people will answer and they will say, Amen.
32
11
אָר֕וּר מַקְלֶ֥ה אָבִ֖יו וְאִמּ֑וֹ
וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן
16 Cursed be one who disgraces his father or his mother,
and let all the people say Amen.
9
8
אָר֕וּר מַסִּ֖יג גְּב֣וּל רֵעֵ֑הוּ
וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן
17 Cursed be one who repositions the border of his associate,
and let all the people say Amen.
9
8
אָר֕וּר מַשְׁגֶּ֥ה עִוֵּ֖ר בַּדָּ֑רֶךְ
וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן
18 Cursed be one who makes the blind stray from the way,
and let all the people say Amen.
9
8
אָר֗וּר מַטֶּ֛ה מִשְׁפַּ֥ט גֵּר־יָת֖וֹם וְאַלְמָנָ֑ה
וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן
19 Cursed be one who dislodges judgment for guest orphan or widow,
and let all the people say Amen.
13
8
אָר֗וּר שֹׁכֵב֙ עִם־אֵ֣שֶׁת אָבִ֔יו כִּ֥י גִלָּ֖ה כְּנַ֣ף אָבִ֑יו
וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן
20 Cursed be one who lies down with the wife of his father, for he has uncovered the hem of his father,
and let all the people say Amen.
16
8
אָר֕וּר שֹׁכֵ֖ב עִם־כָּל־בְּהֵמָ֑ה
וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן
21 Cursed be one who lies down with any beast,
and let all the people say Amen.
9
8
אָר֗וּר שֹׁכֵב֙ עִם־אֲחֹת֔וֹ בַּת־אָבִ֖יו א֣וֹ בַת־אִמּ֑וֹ
וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן
22 Cursed be one who lies down with his sister, the daughter of his father or the daughter of his mother,
and let all the people say Amen.
15
8
אָר֕וּר שֹׁכֵ֖ב עִם־חֹֽתַנְתּ֑וֹ
וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן
23 Cursed be one who lies down with his in-law,
and let all the people say Amen.
8
8
אָר֕וּר מַכֵּ֥ה רֵעֵ֖הוּ בַּסָּ֑תֶר
וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן
24 Cursed be one who strikes his associate in secret,
and let all the people say Amen.
10
8
אָרוּר֙ לֹקֵ֣חַ שֹׁ֔חַד לְהַכּ֥וֹת נֶ֖פֶשׁ דָּ֣ם נָקִ֑י
וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן
25 Cursed be one who takes a bribe to strike the vitality of innocent blood,
and let all the people say Amen.
15
8
אָר֗וּר אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹא־יָקִ֛ים אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֥י הַתּוֹרָֽה־הַזֹּ֖את לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת אוֹתָ֑ם
וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן
26 Cursed who does not uphold the words of this instruction to do them,
and let all the people say Amen.
19
8

Friday, July 15, 2016

Job 31

The words of Job are complete. (He will say a few more in 10 chapters.) This chapter I find has a number of difficulties. At times it seems incoherent to me but a few guesses with helping verbs seems to have helped.

Verses 1-12 are about the first need for intercessors, sexual exploitation from the male point of view. Verses 13 to 23 (possibly excluding 23) concern his relationship with the poor. Verse 23 is perplexing and I leave it as a conundrum. It plays little part in the recurrence pattern of the chapter. The one word (apart from if/not)  that links it to the poem is lift up/bear (נשא). Perhaps it is, in its central position, an important word in the poem.

Verses 24 to 28, dealing with riches and idolatry, result in the second appeal to the need for intercessors. Verses 29 to 34 relate to schadenfreude and dissimulation. Verse 35 appeals again to a hearing, or a record, of his insistence that he considers a crown. Finally there is an appeal to the land. In our day, the land also raises its voice against us.

If we are Job, we must remain insistent in our call against all the categories of sin that we are too aware of. I would say they are not all here: sexual deceit, exploitation, riches and idolatry, and finally the treatment of the earth are present. Violence is implied in these abuses. We are not righteous, but we can perhaps look for insistence and determination in our hope. Here verse 23 may be a comment from Job on his whole effort to keep God from being 'defined' by the hands of Deuteronomic logic. Three words provide a frame for the chapter, paces, record, and the Sufficient.

The other side of this logic remains clear in this chapter: care for others has been a guiding force for Job. His character reflects that of Yahweh in Psalm 146. In this way, Job reflects the character of the person of Psalm 112, but here many translations fall into the trap of emphasizing the wrong part of the sentences. Their inaccurate emphases give rise to false impressions in our readings. (This deserves a longer post, but some things like the prosperity Gospel are a distraction and I probably won't bother explaining.)

(Note: Verse 40 does not have an ole-veyored, but it is as close as it needs to be with the revia on the supertonic, to allow this to be phrased in the music as a tri-colon. A revia also marks a break in verses 34 and 35. The music would bear some analysis. It begins on the third showing a relationship with the prior chapter. Verse 12 is an  emphatic comment on verse 11 with its start on a high C. Sentence structure is subtle in this chapter. Over to you.)
Job 31
בְּ֭רִית כָּרַ֣תִּי לְעֵינָ֑י
וּמָ֥ה אֶ֝תְבּוֹנֵ֗ן עַל־בְּתוּלָֽה
1 A covenant I have cut for my eye,
so why would I contemplate a virgin?
8
9
וּמֶ֤ה ׀ חֵ֣לֶק אֱל֣וֹהַּ מִמָּ֑עַל
וְֽנַחֲלַ֥ת שַׁ֝דַּ֗י מִמְּרֹמִֽים
2 And what is the share of God from above,
and an inheritance of the Sufficient from the heights?
10
9
הֲלֹא־אֵ֥יד לְעַוָּ֑ל
וְ֝נֵ֗כֶר לְפֹ֣עֲלֵי אָֽוֶן
3 Is not misfortune for the unjust,
and alienation for the workers of mischief?
6
9
הֲלֹא־ה֭וּא‬ יִרְאֶ֣ה דְרָכָ֑י
וְֽכָל־צְעָדַ֥י יִסְפּֽוֹר
4 Does not he see my ways,
and all my paces record?
8
7
אִם־הָלַ֥כְתִּי עִם־שָׁ֑וְא
וַתַּ֖חַשׁ עַל־מִרְמָ֣ה רַגְלִֽי
5 If I walk with vanity,
and my foot hurries to deceit,
6
8
יִשְׁקְלֵ֥נִי בְמֹאזְנֵי־צֶ֑דֶק
וְיֵדַ֥ע אֱ֝ל֗וֹהַּ תֻּמָּתִֽי
6 let me be weighed in a just balance,
that God may know my completeness.
8
9
אִ֥ם תִּטֶּ֣ה אַשֻּׁרִי֮ מִנִּ֪י הַ֫דָּ֥רֶךְ
וְאַחַ֣ר עֵ֭ינַי הָלַ֣ךְ לִבִּ֑י
וּ֝בְכַפַּ֗י דָּ֣בַק מֻאֽוּם‬ פ
7 If my steps have swerved from the way,
and following my eyes, my heart has walked,
then to my palm clings a spot.
11
9
8
0
אֶ֭זְרְעָה וְאַחֵ֣ר יֹאכֵ֑ל
וְֽצֶאֱצָאַ֥י יְשֹׁרָֽשׁוּ
8 Let me sow and another eat,
and my offspring be uprooted.
8
9
אִם־נִפְתָּ֣ה לִ֭בִּי עַל־אִשָּׁ֑ה
וְעַל־פֶּ֖תַח רֵעִ֣י אָרָֽבְתִּי
9 If my heart is seduced over a woman
and at the door of my associate, I have lurked,
8
9
תִּטְחַ֣ן לְאַחֵ֣ר אִשְׁתִּ֑י
וְ֝עָלֶ֗יהָ יִכְרְע֥וּן אֲחֵרִֽין
10 let my wife grind for another,
and over her let others kneel.
7
10
כִּי־הִ֥יא זִמָּ֑ה
וְ֝ה֗וּא עָוֺ֥ן פְּלִילִֽים
11 for this is agenda,
and this is iniquity for intercessors.
3
7
כִּ֤י אֵ֣שׁ הִ֭יא עַד־אֲבַדּ֣וֹן תֹּאכֵ֑ל
וּֽבְכָל־תְּב֖וּאָתִ֣י תְשָׁרֵֽשׁ
12 Because this fire to Abaddon devours,
and in all my conduct, would uproot.
9
9
אִם־אֶמְאַ֗ס מִשְׁפַּ֣ט עַ֭בְדִּי וַאֲמָתִ֑י
בְּ֝רִבָ֗ם עִמָּדִֽי
13 If I refuse the judgment of my servant or my maidservant,
in their contention about me,
11
6
וּמָ֣ה אֶֽ֭עֱשֶׂה כִּֽי־יָק֣וּם אֵ֑ל
וְכִֽי־יִ֝פְקֹ֗ד מָ֣ה אֲשִׁיבֶֽנּוּ
14 then what will I do when the One arises?
And when he visits, how will I turn to him?
8
9
הֲֽ֝לֹא־בַ֭בֶּטֶן עֹשֵׂ֣נִי עָשָׂ֑הוּ
וַ֝יְכֻנֶ֗נּוּ בָּרֶ֥חֶם אֶחָֽד
15 Has not from the belly he who made me made him,
and prepared us in the womb as one?
10
9
אִם־אֶ֭מְנַע מֵחֵ֣פֶץ דַּלִּ֑ים
וְעֵינֵ֖י אַלְמָנָ֣ה אֲכַלֶּֽה
16 If I have withheld the weak from delight,
and caused the eyes of a widow to be faint,
8
9
וְאֹכַ֣ל פִּתִּ֣י לְבַדִּ֑י
וְלֹא־אָכַ֖ל יָת֣וֹם מִמֶּֽנָּה
17 or have eaten my morsel alone,
and an orphan not has eaten from it,
8
8
כִּ֣י מִ֭נְּעוּרַי גְּדֵלַ֣נִי כְאָ֑ב
וּמִבֶּ֖טֶן אִמִּ֣י אַנְחֶֽנָּה
18 (for from my youth he grew up with me as father,
and from the belly of my mother I guided her)
10
9
אִם־אֶרְאֶ֣ה א֭וֹבֵד‬ מִבְּלִ֣י לְב֑וּשׁ
וְאֵ֥ין כְּ֝ס֗וּת לָאֶבְיֽוֹן
19 If I have seen one perishing without clothing,
and there is no covering for the needy,
9
7
אִם־לֹ֣א בֵרֲכ֣וּנִי חֲלָצָ֑יו
וּמִגֵּ֥ז כְּ֝בָשַׂי יִתְחַמָּֽם
20 If he has not blessed me for his rescue,
and from the fleece of my young lambs he grows warm,
9
9
אִם־הֲנִיפ֣וֹתִי עַל־יָת֣וֹם יָדִ֑י
כִּֽי־אֶרְאֶ֥ה בַ֝שַּׁ֗עַר עֶזְרָתִֽי
21 If I have brandished against an orphan my hand,
when I see at the gate help that is mine,
10
9
כְּ֭תֵפִי מִשִּׁכְמָ֣ה תִפּ֑וֹל
וְ֝אֶזְרֹעִ֗י מִקָּנָ֥ה תִשָּׁבֵֽר
22 Let my shoulder from its backside fall,
and my arm's acquisitiveness be broken.
8
10
כִּ֤י פַ֣חַד אֵ֭לַי אֵ֣יד אֵ֑ל
וּ֝מִשְּׂאֵת֗וֹ לֹ֣א אוּכָֽל
23 For my dread is the misfortune of the One,
and from lifting him up I will not endure.
7
7
אִם־שַׂ֣מְתִּי זָהָ֣ב כִּסְלִ֑י
וְ֝לַכֶּ֗תֶם אָמַ֥רְתִּי מִבְטַחִֽי
24 If I have set gold as my folly,
or to fine gold I have said, My trust.
7
10
אִם־אֶ֭שְׂמַח כִּי־רַ֣ב חֵילִ֑י
וְכִֽי־כַ֝בִּ֗יר מָצְאָ֥ה יָדִֽי
25 If I am glad because my wealth is increased,
or because my hand found a great deal,
7
7
אִם־אֶרְאֶ֣ה א֖וֹר כִּ֣י יָהֵ֑ל
וְ֝יָרֵ֗חַ יָקָ֥ר הֹלֵֽךְ
26 If I see light that blustering,
or the moon precious in procession,
7
8
וַיִּ֣פְתְּ בַּסֵּ֣תֶר לִבִּ֑י
וַתִּשַּׁ֖ק יָדִ֣י לְפִֽי
27 and seduced in secret is my heart,
and my mouth has kissed my hand,
8
7
גַּם־ה֭וּא‬ עָוֺ֣ן פְּלִילִ֑י
כִּֽי־כִחַ֖שְׁתִּי לָאֵ֣ל מִמָּֽעַל
28 Also this is iniquity for an intercessor,
for I would disown the One from above.
7
8
אִם־אֶ֭שְׂמַח בְּפִ֣יד מְשַׂנְאִ֑י
וְ֝הִתְעֹרַ֗רְתִּי כִּֽי־מְצָ֥אוֹ רָֽע
29 If I am glad in the disaster of someone who hates me,
or rouse myself when evil finds him,
8
10
וְלֹא־נָתַ֣תִּי לַחֲטֹ֣א חִכִּ֑י
לִשְׁאֹ֖ל בְּאָלָ֣ה נַפְשֽׁוֹ
30 and I have not given my palate to sin,
by asking with imprecation for his very self.
9
7
אִם־לֹ֣א אָ֭מְרוּ מְתֵ֣י אָהֳלִ֑י
מִֽי־יִתֵּ֥ן מִ֝בְּשָׂר֗וֹ לֹ֣א נִשְׂבָּֽע
31 If the men of my tent had not said,
Who will give of his flesh? We are not satisfied.
9
8
בַּ֭חוּץ לֹא־יָלִ֣ין גֵּ֑ר
דְּ֝לָתַ֗י לָאֹ֥רַח אֶפְתָּֽח
32 A guest does not lodge outside.
My gateway I opened as a path.
5
8
אִם־כִּסִּ֣יתִי כְאָדָ֣ם פְּשָׁעָ֑י
לִטְמ֖וֹן בְּחֻבִּ֣י עֲוֺֽנִי
33 If I cover as a human my transgression,
and bury in my inner core my iniquity,
10
8
כִּ֤י אֶֽעֱר֨וֹץ ׀ הָ֘מ֤וֹן רַבָּ֗ה וּבוּז־מִשְׁפָּח֥וֹת יְחִתֵּ֑נִי
וָ֝אֶדֹּ֗ם לֹא־אֵ֥צֵא פָֽתַח
34 when I could be ruthless, an abundant tumult, and the contempt of families, dismayed,
but I am mute. I did not come out the opening.
17
7
מִ֤י יִתֶּן־לִ֨י ׀ שֹׁ֘מֵ֤עַֽ לִ֗י הֶן־תָּ֭וִי שַׁדַּ֣י יַעֲנֵ֑נִי
וְסֵ֥פֶר כָּ֝תַ֗ב אִ֣ישׁ רִיבִֽי
35 Who will give me a hearing? Me! Lo my constraining that the Sufficient will answer me,
and someone contending against me had written a record.
17
8
אִם־לֹ֣א עַל־שִׁ֭כְמִי אֶשָּׂאֶ֑נּוּ
אֶֽעֶנְדֶ֖נּוּ עֲטָר֣וֹת לִֽי
36 If not about my insistence I would bear it,
and tie it on as my crown,
9
8
מִסְפַּ֣ר צְ֭עָדַי אַגִּידֶ֑נּוּ
כְּמוֹ־נָ֝גִ֗יד אֲקָרֲבֶֽנּוּ
37 The record of my paces I would tell him.
Like a herald I would approach him.
9
8
אִם־עָ֭לַי אַדְמָתִ֣י תִזְעָ֑ק
וְ֝יַ֗חַד תְּלָמֶ֥יהָ יִבְכָּיֽוּן
38 If against me my ground would appeal,
and as one her ridges weeping,
8
10
אִם־כֹּ֭חָהּ‬ אָכַ֣לְתִּי בְלִי־כָ֑סֶף
וְנֶ֖פֶשׁ בְּעָלֶ֣יהָ הִפָּֽחְתִּי
39 If her power I have eaten without silver,
and the being of her owner I made to exhale,
9
10
תַּ֤חַת חִטָּ֨ה ׀ יֵ֥צֵא ח֗וֹחַ וְתַֽחַת־שְׂעֹרָ֥ה בָאְשָׁ֑ה
תַּ֝֗מּוּ דִּבְרֵ֥י אִיּֽוֹב פ
40 Under wheat let thorn come forth, and under barley bindweed.
Complete are the words of Job.
16
7

Sunday, July 10, 2016

A suitable warning

This quote might have come from Doug Saunders in a Globe editorial on the fear of refugees, but instead it is from a book I have just taken up, The French Language and British Literature, 1756-1830, British Literature in Context in the Long Eighteenth Century, by Marcus Tomalin.

From the Introduction, page 2: "Whenever nationalism and foreignness are contested, appearance and reality are frequently divergent."


Saturday, July 9, 2016

Jeremiah 26, meet the prophet

This is a curious story if only for the four levels of reported speech in verse 18 (Micah 3:12), not to mention the threats and counter arguments. I know very little of Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Gradually we may meet them more fully. Brutality and self-interest play a role in the politics here. Yahweh, I suppose can 'repent' if he likes, but it seems odd to me, so I have him sigh when נחם occurs with Yahweh as subject. He could also be comforted, but I have used sigh, perhaps in the nature of a father who forgives his children when they fess up to their troubled lives. I am not sure I was able to teach my own children anything. There's a mystery there for sure. Here too Yahweh seems to complain of having to rise early. Now there's a ironic anthropomorphism.

By the way, I have never used the word repent in these first 340 chapters. I didn't set out to not use it (like I did soul), but there it is. I think repentance is important, but one cannot screw oneself up to do it. What one can do is turn. Turning seems an easier task. Then the one to whom we turn will give us direction. It's here in the text in the word for face, presence, or before. E.g. verses 3 and 4: Yahweh is in the presence of the evil of their practices. He instructs them to walk in the instruction that he gave in their presence. It's a face to face thing. That's why hearing and turning is Yahweh's hope for them.

There are a lot of groups of actors in this chapter, priests, prophets, nobility, the elders, the valiant of the king, the people, and children (generic).
Jeremiah 26
בְּרֵאשִׁ֗ית מַמְלְכ֛וּת יְהוֹיָקִ֥ים בֶּן־יֹאשִׁיָּ֖הוּ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֑ה
הָיָה֙ הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה מֵאֵ֥ת יְהוָ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר
1 In the beginning of the kingdom of Jehoiachim child of Josiah king of Judah,
there was this word from Yahweh saying:
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13
כֹּ֣ה ׀ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה עֲמֹד֮ בַּחֲצַ֣ר בֵּית־יְהוָה֒ וְדִבַּרְתָּ֞ עַל־כָּל־עָרֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֗ה הַבָּאִים֙ לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺ֣ת בֵּית־יְהוָ֔ה אֵ֚ת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוִּיתִ֖יךָ לְדַבֵּ֣ר אֲלֵיהֶ֑ם
אַל־תִּגְרַ֖ע דָּבָֽר
2 Thus says Yahweh, Stand in the court of the house of Yahweh and speak to all the cities of Judah that come to worship the house of Yahweh all the words that I commanded you to speak to them.
Do not subtract a word.
52
5
אוּלַ֣י יִשְׁמְע֔וּ וְיָשֻׁ֕בוּ אִ֖ישׁ מִדַּרְכּ֣וֹ הָרָעָ֑ה
וְנִחַמְתִּ֣י אֶל־הָרָעָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָנֹכִ֤י חֹשֵׁב֙ לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת לָהֶ֔ם מִפְּנֵ֖י רֹ֥עַ מַעַלְלֵיהֶֽם
3 Maybe they will hear and turn, each from its evil way,
and I will sigh at the evil that I considered to do to them in the presence of the evil of their practices.
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28
וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵיהֶ֔ם כֹּ֖ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֑ה
אִם־לֹ֤א תִשְׁמְעוּ֙ אֵלַ֔י לָלֶ֙כֶת֙ בְּת֣וֹרָתִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֖תִּי לִפְנֵיכֶֽם
4 And you say to them, Thus says Yahweh,
If you do not hear me, to walk in my instruction that I gave in your presence,
12
22
לִשְׁמֹ֗עַ עַל־דִּבְרֵ֨י עֲבָדַ֣י הַנְּבִאִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָנֹכִ֖י שֹׁלֵ֣חַ אֲלֵיכֶ֑ם
וְהַשְׁכֵּ֥ם וְשָׁלֹ֖חַ וְלֹ֥א שְׁמַעְתֶּֽם
5 To hear the words of my servants the prophets that I, I sent to you,
both rising early and sending, (and you have not heard),
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12
וְנָתַתִּ֛י אֶת־הַבַּ֥יִת הַזֶּ֖ה כְּשִׁלֹ֑ה
וְאֶת־הָעִ֤יר הַזֹּאת֙ אֶתֵּ֣ן לִקְלָלָ֔ה לְכֹ֖ל גּוֹיֵ֥י הָאָֽרֶץ
6 Then I will make this house like Shiloh,
and this city I will make to be slighted of all the nations of the earth.
13
18
וַֽיִּשְׁמְע֛וּ הַכֹּהֲנִ֥ים וְהַנְּבִאִ֖ים וְכָל־הָעָ֑ם
אֶֽת־יִרְמְיָ֔הוּ מְדַבֵּ֛ר אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה בְּבֵ֥ית יְהוָֽה
7 And the priests and the prophets and all the people,
heard Jeremiah speaking these words in the house of Yahweh.
16
19
וַיְהִ֣י ׀ כְּכַלּ֣וֹת יִרְמְיָ֗הוּ לְדַבֵּר֙ אֵ֣ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֣ה יְהוָ֔ה לְדַבֵּ֖ר אֶל־כָּל־הָעָ֑ם
וַיִּתְפְּשׂ֨וּ אֹת֜וֹ הַכֹּהֲנִ֧ים וְהַנְּבִאִ֛ים וְכָל־הָעָ֥ם לֵאמֹ֖ר מ֥וֹת תָּמֽוּת
8 And it happened that Jeremiah finished speaking all that Yahweh commanded to speak to all the people.
And the priests and the prophets and all the people arrested him, saying, To die. You will die.
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23
מַדּוּעַ֩ נִבֵּ֨יתָ בְשֵׁם־יְהוָ֜ה לֵאמֹ֗ר כְּשִׁלוֹ֙ יִֽהְיֶה֙ הַבַּ֣יִת הַזֶּ֔ה וְהָעִ֥יר הַזֹּ֛את תֶּחֱרַ֖ב מֵאֵ֣ין יוֹשֵׁ֑ב
וַיִּקָּהֵ֧ל כָּל־הָעָ֛ם אֶֽל־יִרְמְיָ֖הוּ בְּבֵ֥ית יְהוָֽה
9 Why have you prophesied in the name of Yahweh saying, Like Shiloh will be this house, and this city deserted, without inhabitant?
And all the people were convened against Jeremiah in the house of Yahweh.
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16
וַֽיִּשְׁמְע֣וּ ׀ שָׂרֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֗ה אֵ֚ת הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה וַיַּעֲל֥וּ מִבֵּית־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ בֵּ֣ית יְהוָ֑ה
וַיֵּֽשְׁב֛וּ בְּפֶ֥תַח שַֽׁעַר־יְהוָ֖ה הֶחָדָֽשׁ
10 And the nobility of Judah heard these words and they ascended from the house of the king to the house of Yahweh,
and sat in the door of Yahweh's new gate.
28
13
וַיֹּ֨אמְר֜וּ הַכֹּהֲנִ֤ים וְהַנְּבִאִים֙ אֶל־הַשָּׂרִ֔ים וְאֶל־כָּל־הָעָ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר
מִשְׁפַּט־מָ֙וֶת֙ לָאִ֣ישׁ הַזֶּ֔ה כִּ֤י נִבָּא֙ אֶל־הָעִ֣יר הַזֹּ֔את כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר שְׁמַעְתֶּ֖ם בְּאָזְנֵיכֶֽם
11 And the priests and the prophets said to the nobility and to all the people, saying,
The judgment is death to this man, for he prophesied against this city, as you have heard with your ears.
22
26
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יִרְמְיָ֙הוּ֙ אֶל־כָּל־הַשָּׂרִ֔ים וְאֶל־כָּל־הָעָ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר
יְהוָ֣ה שְׁלָחַ֗נִי לְהִנָּבֵ֞א אֶל־הַבַּ֤יִת הַזֶּה֙ וְאֶל־הָעִ֣יר הַזֹּ֔את אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר שְׁמַעְתֶּֽם
12 And Jeremiah said to all the nobility and to all the people, saying,
Yahweh sent me to prophesy to this house and to this city all the words that you have heard.
19
32
וְעַתָּ֗ה הֵיטִ֤יבוּ דַרְכֵיכֶם֙ וּמַ֣עַלְלֵיכֶ֔ם וְשִׁמְע֕וּ בְּק֖וֹל יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֑ם
וְיִנָּחֵ֣ם יְהוָ֔ה אֶל־הָ֣רָעָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבֶּ֖ר עֲלֵיכֶֽם
13 So now do well in your ways and in your practices and hear in the voice of Yahweh your God
and Yahweh will sigh at the evil that he designated for you.
25
17
וַאֲנִ֖י הִנְנִ֣י בְיֶדְכֶ֑ם
עֲשׂוּ־לִ֛י כַּטּ֥וֹב וְכַיָּשָׁ֖ר בְּעֵינֵיכֶֽם
14 As for me, note me well in your hand.
Do for me what seems good and upright in your sight.
8
13
אַ֣ךְ ׀ יָדֹ֣עַ תֵּדְע֗וּ כִּ֣י אִם־מְמִתִ֣ים אַתֶּם֮ אֹתִי֒ כִּי־דָ֣ם נָקִ֗י אַתֶּם֙ נֹתְנִ֣ים עֲלֵיכֶ֔ם וְאֶל־הָעִ֥יר הַזֹּ֖את וְאֶל־יֹשְׁבֶ֑יהָ
כִּ֣י בֶאֱמֶ֗ת שְׁלָחַ֤נִי יְהוָה֙ עֲלֵיכֶ֔ם לְדַבֵּר֙ בְּאָזְנֵיכֶ֔ם אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים הָאֵֽלֶּה
15 Surely you know that if you put me to death that you will assign to yourselves innocent blood and to this city and to her inhabitants,
for in truth Yahweh sent me to you to speak in your ears all these words.
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28
וַיֹּאמְר֤וּ הַשָּׂרִים֙ וְכָל־הָעָ֔ם אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִ֖ים וְאֶל־הַנְּבִיאִ֑ים
אֵין־לָאִ֤ישׁ הַזֶּה֙ מִשְׁפַּט־מָ֔וֶת כִּ֗י בְּשֵׁ֛ם יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ דִּבֶּ֥ר אֵלֵֽינוּ
16 And the nobility and all the people said to the priests and to the prophets,
Not to this man is the judgment to be death, for in the name of Yahweh our God he spoke to us.
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23
וַיָּקֻ֣מוּ אֲנָשִׁ֔ים מִזִּקְנֵ֖י הָאָ֑רֶץ
וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ אֶל־כָּל־קְהַ֥ל הָעָ֖ם לֵאמֹֽר
17 And persons arose from the elders of the land,
and said to all the congregation of the people, saying,
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11
מִיכָה֙ הַמּ֣וֹרַשְׁתִּ֔י הָיָ֣ה נִבָּ֔א בִּימֵ֖י חִזְקִיָּ֣הוּ מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֑ה
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֶל־כָּל־עַם֩ יְהוּדָ֨ה לֵאמֹ֜ר כֹּֽה־אָמַ֣ר ׀ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֗וֹת צִיּ֞וֹן שָׂדֶ֤ה תֵֽחָרֵשׁ֙ וִירוּשָׁלַ֙יִם֙ עִיִּ֣ים תִּֽהְיֶ֔ה וְהַ֥ר הַבַּ֖יִת לְבָמ֥וֹת יָֽעַר
18 Micah the Morashite prophesied in the days of Hezekiah king of Judah,
and said to all the people of Judah, saying, Thus says Yahweh of hosts Zion will be a ploughed field and Jerusalem will be a shambles, and the hill of the house, the high places of the forest.
21
44
הֶהָמֵ֣ת הֱ֠מִתֻהוּ חִזְקִיָּ֨הוּ מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֜ה וְכָל־יְהוּדָ֗ה הֲלֹא֮ יָרֵ֣א אֶת־יְהוָה֒ וַיְחַל֙ אֶת־פְּנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וַיִּנָּ֣חֶם יְהוָ֔ה אֶל־הָרָעָ֖ה אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֣ר עֲלֵיהֶ֑ם
וַאֲנַ֗חְנוּ עֹשִׂ֛ים רָעָ֥ה גְדוֹלָ֖ה עַל־נַפְשׁוֹתֵֽינוּ
19 To death? Did Hezekiah king of Judah and all Judah put him to death? Did he not fear Yahweh and entreated before Yahweh and did Yahweh sigh at the evil that he designated for them?
So we would do great evil to ourselves.
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16
וְגַם־אִ֗ישׁ הָיָ֤ה מִתְנַבֵּא֙ בְּשֵׁ֣ם יְהוָ֔ה אֽוּרִיָּ֙הוּ֙ בֶּֽן־שְׁמַעְיָ֔הוּ מִקִּרְיַ֖ת הַיְּעָרִ֑ים
וַיִּנָּבֵ֞א עַל־הָעִ֤יר הַזֹּאת֙ וְעַל־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֔את כְּכֹ֖ל דִּבְרֵ֥י יִרְמְיָֽהוּ
20 And moreover, a man there was who prophesied in the name of Yahweh, Uriah child of Shemaiah, from Qiryath- Ha-Yearim,
and he prophesied against this city and against this land according to all the words of Jeremiah.
27
24
וַיִּשְׁמַ֣ע הַמֶּֽלֶךְ־יְ֠הוֹיָקִים וְכָל־גִּבּוֹרָ֤יו וְכָל־הַשָּׂרִים֙ אֶת־דְּבָרָ֔יו וַיְבַקֵּ֥שׁ הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ הֲמִית֑וֹ
וַיִּשְׁמַ֤ע אוּרִיָּ֙הוּ֙ וַיִּרָ֔א וַיִּבְרַ֖ח וַיָּבֹ֥א מִצְרָֽיִם
21 And the king Jehoiachim heard and all his valiant ones and all the nobility his words, and the king sought to put him to death,
and Uriah heard and he feared, and he ran away and came to Egypt.
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19
וַיִּשְׁלַ֞ח הַמֶּ֧לֶךְ יְהוֹיָקִ֛ים אֲנָשִׁ֖ים מִצְרָ֑יִם
אֵ֣ת אֶלְנָתָ֧ן בֶּן־עַכְבּ֛וֹר וַאֲנָשִׁ֥ים אִתּ֖וֹ אֶל־מִצְרָֽיִם
22 And the king Jehoiachim sent men to Egypt,
Elnathan child of Acbor, and soldiers with him to Egypt.
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17
וַיּוֹצִ֨יאוּ אֶת־אוּרִיָּ֜הוּ מִמִּצְרַ֗יִם וַיְבִאֻ֙הוּ֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ יְהוֹיָקִ֔ים וַיַּכֵּ֖הוּ בֶּחָ֑רֶב
וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ֙ אֶת־נִבְלָת֔וֹ אֶל־קִבְרֵ֖י בְּנֵ֥י הָעָֽם
23 And they brought Uriah out from Egypt and brought him to the king Jehoiachim, and struck him by the sword,
and cast his corpse into the tombs of the children of the people.
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14
אַ֗ךְ יַ֚ד אֲחִיקָ֣ם בֶּן־שָׁפָ֔ן הָיְתָ֖ה אֶֽת־יִרְמְיָ֑הוּ
לְבִלְתִּ֛י תֵּת־אֹת֥וֹ בְיַד־הָעָ֖ם לַהֲמִיתֽוֹ
24 But the hand of Ahiqam child of Shaphan was with Jeremiah,
so as to prevent his being executed by the hand of the people.
15
14

Friday, July 8, 2016

Job 30

When I began, I thought Job was serious in this chapter, but on finishing, I think he was needling his friends with his summary reminding them of words they used that implied his lack of care for the indigent.

There is no rest in verse 27. Verses 3, 12 and 15 are tri-cola. Others could be read that way, but are not marked by a rest on the supertonic or subdominant.

The last verse suggests strongly that the inscriptions for a psalm are original. Or at least that inscribing a poem with the name of the song was a practice at the time that the Job philosophical drama was composed.


Job 30
וְעַתָּ֤ה ׀ שָֽׂחֲק֣וּ עָלַי֮ צְעִירִ֥ים מִמֶּ֗נִּי לְיָ֫מִ֥ים
אֲשֶׁר־מָאַ֥סְתִּי אֲבוֹתָ֑ם
לָ֝שִׁ֗ית עִם־כַּלְבֵ֥י צֹאנִֽי
1 But now they laugh at me, those of lesser account than I in experience,
whose fathers I refused to set with my sheep dogs.
17
8
7
גַּם־כֹּ֣חַ יְ֭דֵיהֶם לָ֣מָּה לִּ֑י
עָ֝לֵ֗ימוֹ אָ֣בַד כָּֽלַח
2 Even the power of their hands, what is it to me?
For them, full old age has perished.
9
7
בְּחֶ֥סֶר וּבְכָפָ֗ן גַּ֫לְמ֥וּד
הַֽעֹרְקִ֥ים צִיָּ֑ה
אֶ֝֗מֶשׁ שׁוֹאָ֥ה וּמְשֹׁאָֽה
3 Deprived and in penury, bleak,
gnawed by aridity,
last night of ruin, and from ruin,
8
5
7
הַקֹּטְפִ֣ים מַלּ֣וּחַ עֲלֵי־שִׂ֑יחַ
וְשֹׁ֖רֶשׁ רְתָמִ֣ים לַחְמָֽם
4 who pluck off mallow on the shrub,
and the root of the broom for bread.
9
8
מִן־גֵּ֥ו יְגֹרָ֑שׁוּ
יָרִ֥יעוּ עָ֝לֵ֗ימוֹ כַּגַּנָּֽב
5 From the body expelled,
they raise a shout about them as for a thief.
6
9
בַּעֲר֣וּץ נְחָלִ֣ים לִשְׁכֹּ֑ן
חֹרֵ֖י עָפָ֣ר וְכֵפִֽים
6 In the ruthless wadis to dwell,
dusty holes and grottoes.
8
7
בֵּין־שִׂיחִ֥ים יִנְהָ֑קוּ
תַּ֖חַת חָר֣וּל יְסֻפָּֽחוּ
7 Between shrubs they bray,
under nettles deformed.
6
8
בְּֽנֵי־נָ֭בָל גַּם־בְּנֵ֣י בְלִי־שֵׁ֑ם
נִ֝כְּא֗וּ מִן־הָאָֽרֶץ
8 Children of the senseless, even children without a name,
they are segregated from the earth.
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6
וְ֭עַתָּה נְגִינָתָ֣ם הָיִ֑יתִי
וָאֱהִ֖י לָהֶ֣ם לְמִלָּֽה
9 And now their music I have become,
and I am to them a speech.
10
8
תִּֽ֭עֲבוּנִי רָ֣חֲקוּ מֶ֑נִּי
וּ֝מִפָּנַ֗י לֹא־חָ֥שְׂכוּ רֹֽק
10 They abhor me. They are distant from me,
and beyond my presence, they do not resist spitting.
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8
כִּֽי־יִתְרִ֣י פִ֭תַּח וַיְעַנֵּ֑נִי
וְ֝רֶ֗סֶן מִפָּנַ֥י שִׁלֵּֽחוּ
11 For my bow-string he has loosed and he afflicts me,
and bridle beyond my presence they dismiss.
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9
עַל־יָמִין֮ פִּרְחַ֪ח יָ֫ק֥וּמוּ
רַגְלַ֥י שִׁלֵּ֑חוּ
וַיָּסֹ֥לּוּ עָ֝לַ֗י אָרְח֥וֹת אֵידָֽם
12 On my right hand the brood arise.
My feet they dismiss,
and they extol against me the paths of their misfortune.
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5
10
נָתְס֗וּ נְֽתִיבָ֫תִ֥י לְהַוָּתִ֥י יֹעִ֑ילוּ
לֹ֖א עֹזֵ֣ר לָֽמוֹ
13 They disfigure my pathway using my calamity.
No help to them.
13
5
כְּפֶ֣רֶץ רָחָ֣ב יֶאֱתָ֑יוּ
תַּ֥חַת שֹׁ֝אָ֗ה הִתְגַּלְגָּֽלוּ
14 As a broadside wide open they arrive upon me.
Under ruin they roll over me.
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8
הָהְפַּ֥ךְ עָלַ֗י בַּלָּ֫ה֥וֹת
תִּרְדֹּ֣ף כָּ֭רוּחַ נְדִבָתִ֑י
וּ֝כְעָ֗ב עָבְרָ֥ה יְשֻׁעָתִֽי
15 He imparts fright against me.
You pursue as wind my freewill offering,
and as a thick cloud my salvation passes.
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8
וְעַתָּ֗ה עָ֭לַי תִּשְׁתַּפֵּ֣ךְ נַפְשִׁ֑י
יֹ֭אחֲז֣וּנִי יְמֵי־עֹֽנִי
16 So now against me is poured out my being.
The days of my affliction have held me fast.
10
7
לַ֗יְלָה עֲ֭צָמַי נִקַּ֣ר מֵעָלָ֑י
וְ֝עֹרְקַ֗י לֹ֣א יִשְׁכָּבֽוּן
17 Night quarries my bones from me,
and those gnawing do not lie down.
10
7
בְּרָב־כֹּ֭חַ‬ יִתְחַפֵּ֣שׂ לְבוּשִׁ֑י
כְּפִ֖י כֻתָּנְתִּ֣י יַֽאַזְרֵֽנִי
18 By abundant power my clothing makes plans.
As the mouth of my coat, it girds me.
10
9
הֹרָ֥נִי לַחֹ֑מֶר
וָ֝אֶתְמַשֵּׁ֗ל כֶּעָפָ֥ר וָאֵֽפֶר
19 He has instructed me in clay,
and I am parabled as dust and ashes.
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10
אֲשַׁוַּ֣ע אֵ֭לֶיךָ וְלֹ֣א תַעֲנֵ֑נִי
עָ֝מַ֗דְתִּי וַתִּתְבֹּ֥נֶן בִּֽי
20 I cry for help to you and not you do answer me.
I stand and you discern in me.
12
8
תֵּהָפֵ֣ךְ לְאַכְזָ֣ר לִ֑י
בְּעֹ֖צֶם יָדְךָ֣ תִשְׂטְמֵֽנִי
21 You have changed to be vicious to me.
In your skeletal hand, you oppose me.
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9
תִּשָּׂאֵ֣נִי אֶל־ר֭וּחַ‬ תַּרְכִּיבֵ֑נִי
וּ֝תְמֹגְגֵ֗נִי תּוּשִׁיָּֽה
22 You lift me up. On a wind you make me ride.
You undermine my enterprise.
11
7
כִּֽי־יָ֭דַעְתִּי מָ֣וֶת תְּשִׁיבֵ֑נִי
וּבֵ֖ית מוֹעֵ֣ד לְכָל־חָֽי
23 For I know you will make me turn to death,
and the house engaged for all living.
9
7
אַ֣ךְ לֹא־בְ֭עִי יִשְׁלַח־יָ֑ד
אִם־בְּ֝פִיד֗וֹ לָהֶ֥ן שֽׁוּעַ
24 But not in a shambles will he extend a hand,
even in its disaster, to them crying for help.
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8
אִם־לֹ֣א בָ֭כִיתִי לִקְשֵׁה־י֑וֹם
עָֽגְמָ֥ה נַ֝פְשִׁ֗י לָאֶבְיֽוֹן
25 Do I not weep in a severe day,
my being bewailing for the needy?
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7
כִּ֤י ט֣וֹב קִ֭וִּיתִי וַיָּ֣בֹא רָ֑ע
וַֽאֲיַחֲלָ֥ה לְ֝א֗וֹר וַיָּ֥בֹא אֹֽפֶל
26 For good I waited and evil came,
and I hoped for light and gloom came.
9
12
מֵעַ֖י רֻתְּח֥וּ וְלֹא־דָ֗מּוּ קִדְּמֻ֥נִי יְמֵי־עֹֽנִי 27 My inner parts churned and were not mute. I was confronted by days of affliction. 13
קֹדֵ֣ר הִ֭לַּכְתִּי בְּלֹ֣א חַמָּ֑ה
קַ֖מְתִּי בַקָּהָ֣ל אֲשַׁוֵּֽעַ
28 Wan I walk without heat.
I arise in the congregation. I cry for help.
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9
אָ֭ח הָיִ֣יתִי לְתַנִּ֑ים
וְ֝רֵ֗עַ לִבְנ֥וֹת יַעֲנָֽה
29 Sibling I am become to a dragon,
and associate to the daughters of an ostrich.
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8
ע֭וֹרִי‬ שָׁחַ֣ר מֵעָלָ֑י
וְעַצְמִי־חָ֝֗רָה מִנִּי־חֹֽרֶב
30 My naked skin is black upon me,
and my bones are burned from the desert.
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7
וַיְהִ֣י לְ֭אֵבֶל כִּנֹּרִ֑י
וְ֝עֻגָבִ֗י לְק֣וֹל בֹּכִֽים
31 And my harp is become 'of lament'.
And my pipes 'of the voice of those who weep'.
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