Tuesday, November 18, 2014

Lamentations 1 revisited

Well, here is my latest fun. Jeremiah's Lamentations 1. It's a slow process revisiting old translations. Earlier I was not doing much more than elemental rephrasing. Now I apply techniques - but still have much more to learn about this ancient language - never-ending...

This has some astonishing points though - like the five fold recurrence of עלל a word that means wanton, or prodigal (depending on who's saying it). I am not kidding. In Psalms, of humanity, it is wantonness, and if of God, it is prodigality. Thrifty and efficiency is my name! But this is a careful translation.  Every root has been measured for concordance. Music is still to be done to see how well the translation fits.

For an introduction to the Lamentations, here's one that looks safe. This is a poem in five chapters, four of which are acrostics. Forget my former translation still in the links on the page. Eventually I will update them.

So it is a qinah meter - that's nice. My syllable counts don't quite fit, but I think they are reasonably accurate. Tell you more when I do the music (in the shared drive, see right panel, without translation).

Qinah is 3 beats followed by two - let's see - does verse 1 work? No, it doesn't come close. There are two reciting notes in each half verse - this is absolute science. There is a third rest note midway and a final tonic at the end. This also is indisputable. (Just look at it.) The first half verse is four pulses then three pulses. This is slightly more subjective, but the ornaments are telling and the first beat on a change in reciting note is also stressed. The second half verse is similarly 4 beats on the first reciting note and then a very short ending of a one beat bar and final. So 4, 3, 4, 2. Syllables 18 for the 4+3 first half and 17 for the 4+2 second half. Verse 2 is totally different! So what is qinah? Maybe I should find out. But right now I don't believe it.
אֵיכָ֣ה ׀ יָשְׁבָ֣ה בָדָ֗ד הָעִיר֙
רַבָּ֣תִי עָ֔ם הָיְתָ֖ה כְּאַלְמָנָ֑ה
רַּבָּ֣תִי‪ ‬בַגּוֹיִ֗ם
שָׂרָ֙תִי֙ בַּמְּדִינ֔וֹת הָיְתָ֖ה לָמַֽס ס
1Ah in such solitude sits the city.
Abundant with people she became as a widow
Abundant from the nations,
a princess among the provinces, she came into forced service. S
8
10
6
11
בָּכ֨וֹ תִבְכֶּ֜ה בַּלַּ֗יְלָה וְדִמְעָתָהּ֙ עַ֣ל לֶֽחֱיָ֔הּ
אֵֽין־לָ֥הּ מְנַחֵ֖ם מִכָּל־אֹהֲבֶ֑יהָ
כָּל־רֵעֶ֙יהָ֙ בָּ֣גְדוּ בָ֔הּ
הָ֥יוּ לָ֖הּ לְאֹיְבִֽים ס
2Beside herself with weeping in the night and her tears on her cheeks,
There is for her none to comfort among all her lovers.
All her friends have betrayed her.
They have become her enemies. S
15
11
7
7
גָּֽלְתָ֨ה יְהוּדָ֤ה מֵעֹ֙נִי֙ וּמֵרֹ֣ב עֲבֹדָ֔ה
הִ֚יא יָשְׁבָ֣ה בַגּוֹיִ֔ם
לֹ֥א מָצְאָ֖ה מָנ֑וֹחַ
כָּל־רֹדְפֶ֥יהָ הִשִּׂיג֖וּהָ בֵּ֥ין הַמְּצָרִֽים ס
3Gone is Judah into exile on account of affliction and abundant servitude.
She herself sits among the nations.
She finds no rest.
All her pursuers overtake her in her troubles. S
14
6
6
13
דַּרְכֵ֨י צִיּ֜וֹן אֲבֵל֗וֹת
מִבְּלִי֙ בָּאֵ֣י מוֹעֵ֔ד
כָּל־שְׁעָרֶ֙יהָ֙ שֽׁוֹמֵמִ֔ין
כֹּהֲנֶ֖יהָ נֶאֱנָחִ֑ים
תוּלֹתֶ֥יהָ נּוּג֖וֹת ‪
וְהִ֥יא מַר־לָֽהּ ס
4Desolate are all her gates.
The ways of Zion are in lament.
None come to the appointed place.
Her priests sigh.
Her virgins sad,
and as for her, bitterness is hers. S
7
6
8
8
6
5
הָי֨וּ צָרֶ֤יהָ לְרֹאשׁ֙
אֹיְבֶ֣יהָ שָׁל֔וּ
כִּֽי־יְהוָ֥ה הוֹגָ֖הּ עַ֣ל רֹב־פְּשָׁעֶ֑יהָ
עוֹלָלֶ֛יהָ הָלְכ֥וּ שְׁבִ֖י לִפְנֵי־צָֽר ס
5Her adversaries have precedence.
Her enemies are at ease.
For Yahweh has saddened her over her abundant transgressions.
Her prodigals are led away into captivity in the presence of trouble. S
7
5
12
12
וַיֵּצֵ֥א מִבַּת־צִיּ֖וֹן כָּל־הֲדָרָ֑הּ
הָי֣וּ שָׂרֶ֗יהָ כְּאַיָּלִים֙ לֹא־מָצְא֣וּ מִרְעֶ֔ה
וַיֵּלְכ֥וּ בְלֹא־כֹ֖חַ לִפְנֵ֥י רוֹדֵֽף ס
6Vanished is all honour from the daughter of Zion.
Her nobility have become like hart that find no pasture
and they plod powerless in the presence of pursuit. S
11
14
12
זָֽכְרָ֣ה יְרוּשָׁלִַ֗ם יְמֵ֤י עָנְיָהּ֙
וּמְרוּדֶ֔יהָ כֹּ֚ל מַחֲמֻדֶ֔יהָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָי֖וּ מִ֣ימֵי קֶ֑דֶם בִּנְפֹ֧ל עַמָּ֣הּ בְּיַד־צָ֗ר וְאֵ֤ין עוֹזֵר֙ לָ֔הּ
רָא֣וּהָ צָרִ֔ים
שָׂחֲק֖וּ עַ֥ל מִשְׁבַּתֶּֽהָ ס
7Zion of Jerusalem remembers the days of her affliction
and, from her restlessness, all her attractions from the old days before her people fell by the hand of trouble and there was none to help her.
Her adversaries saw her.
They laughed on her Sabbath. S
10
30
5
9
חֵ֤טְא חָֽטְאָה֙ יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם
עַל־כֵּ֖ן לְנִידָ֣ה הָיָ֑תָה
כָּֽל־מְכַבְּדֶ֤יהָ הִזִּיל֙וּהָ֙
כִּי־רָא֣וּ עֶרְוָתָ֔הּ
גַּם־הִ֥יא נֶאֶנְחָ֖ה וַתָּ֥שָׁב אָחֽוֹר ס
8How sinful Jerusalem's sin
therefore she has become aimless.
All who glorified her despise her
for they see her nakedness
even as she herself sighs and turns away. S
7
8
9
5
11
טֻמְאָתָ֣הּ בְּשׁוּלֶ֗יהָ
לֹ֤א זָֽכְרָה֙ אַחֲרִיתָ֔הּ
וַתֵּ֣רֶד פְּלָאִ֔ים
אֵ֥ין מְנַחֵ֖ם לָ֑הּ
רְאֵ֤ה יְהוָה֙ אֶת־עָנְיִ֔י
כִּ֥י הִגְדִּ֖יל אוֹיֵֽב ס
9Tendered in her skirts is her defilement.
She did not remember her consequences
and she descended wonderfully.
There is none to comfort her.
See Yahweh my affliction
for magnified is the enemy. S
7
7
6
5
7
6
יָדוֹ֙ פָּ֣רַשׂ צָ֔ר עַ֖ל כָּל־מַחֲמַדֶּ֑יהָ
כִּֽי־רָאֲתָ֤ה גוֹיִם֙ בָּ֣אוּ מִקְדָּשָׁ֔הּ
אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוִּ֔יתָה לֹא־יָבֹ֥אוּ בַקָּהָ֖ל לָֽךְ ס
10Yes, trouble spread its hand on all her attractions
for she has seen nations enter her holy place
that you charged her they should not enter into your congregation. S
12
10
14
כָּל־עַמָּ֤הּ נֶאֱנָחִים֙ מְבַקְּשִׁ֣ים לֶ֔חֶם
נָתְנ֧וּ מַחֲמַדֵּיהֶ֛ם‬ בְּאֹ֖כֶל לְהָשִׁ֣יב נָ֑פֶשׁ
רְאֵ֤ה יְהוָה֙ וְֽהַבִּ֔יטָה כִּ֥י הָיִ֖יתִי זוֹלֵלָֽה ס
11Know how all her people sigh, seeking bread.
They give their attractions so they can eat to restore themselves.
See Yahweh and take note, for I have become vile. S
12
15
16
ל֣וֹא אֲלֵיכֶם֮ כָּל־עֹ֣בְרֵי דֶרֶךְ֒ הַבִּ֣יטוּ
וּרְא֗וּ אִם־יֵ֤שׁ מַכְאוֹב֙ כְּמַכְאֹבִ֔י
אֲשֶׁ֥ר עוֹלַ֖ל לִ֑י
אֲשֶׁר֙ הוֹגָ֣ה יְהוָ֔ה בְּי֖וֹם חֲר֥וֹן אַפּֽוֹ ס
12Look - (Is it not for you - all you passing this way?)
and see if there is sorrow like my sorrow
which is prodigal as mine
with which Yahweh saddened me in the day of his fierce anger. S
12
10
5
13
מִמָּר֛וֹם שָֽׁלַח־אֵ֥שׁ בְּעַצְמֹתַ֖י וַיִּרְדֶּ֑נָּה
פָּרַ֨שׂ רֶ֤שֶׁת לְרַגְלַי֙
הֱשִׁיבַ֣נִי אָח֔וֹר
נְתָנַ֙נִי֙ שֹֽׁמֵמָ֔ה כָּל־הַיּ֖וֹם דָּוָֽה ס
13Mightily from on high he has sent fire into my bones and he descends into her.
He has spread a net for my feet.
He has turned me away.
He has given me desolation, every day infirmity. S
14
7
6
13
נִשְׂקַד֩ עֹ֨ל פְּשָׁעַ֜י בְּיָד֗וֹ
יִשְׂתָּֽרְג֛וּ עָל֥וּ עַל־צַוָּארִ֖י
הִכְשִׁ֣יל כֹּחִ֑י
נְתָנַ֣נִי אֲדֹנָ֔י בִּידֵ֖י לֹא־אוּכַ֥ל קֽוּם ס
14Now bound by his hand is the harness of my transgressions.
They are intertwined - they come up to my neck.
He has made my power fail.
My Lord has given me into the hands of those against whom I cannot rise. S
9
9
4
14
סִלָּ֨ה כָל־אַבִּירַ֤י ׀
אֲדֹנָי֙ בְּקִרְבִּ֔י קָרָ֥א עָלַ֛י מוֹעֵ֖ד לִשְׁבֹּ֣ר בַּחוּרָ֑י
גַּ֚ת דָּרַ֣ךְ אֲדֹנָ֔י לִבְתוּלַ֖ת בַּת־יְהוּדָֽה ס
15Suspended are all the mighty.
My Lord near me has called against me an appointed place to break my chosen ones.
In a vat my Lord has trodden the virgin daughter of Judah. S
6
17
14
עַל־אֵ֣לֶּה ׀ אֲנִ֣י בוֹכִיָּ֗ה
עֵינִ֤י ׀ עֵינִי֙ יֹ֣רְדָה מַּ֔יִם
כִּֽי־רָחַ֥ק מִמֶּ֛נִּי מְנַחֵ֖ם מֵשִׁ֣יב נַפְשִׁ֑י
הָי֤וּ בָנַי֙ שֽׁוֹמֵמִ֔ים
כִּ֥י גָבַ֖ר אוֹיֵֽב ס
16I - I weep about these things,
my eye, my eye running down with water,
for far from me is comfort to restore me.
My children are desolate
for an enemy has prevailed. S
8
7
12
7
6
פֵּֽרְשָׂ֨ה צִיּ֜וֹן בְּיָדֶ֗יהָ
אֵ֤ין מְנַחֵם֙ לָ֔הּ
צִוָּ֧ה יְהוָ֛ה לְיַעֲקֹ֖ב סְבִיבָ֣יו צָרָ֑יו
הָיְתָ֧ה יְרוּשָׁלִַ֛ם לְנִדָּ֖ה בֵּינֵיהֶֽם ס
17Putting forth her hands is Zion.
There is none to comfort her.
Yahweh charged concerning Jacob: his troubles surround him.
Jerusalem has become uncleanness among them. S
8
5
13
13
צַדִּ֥יק ה֛וּא יְהוָ֖ה כִּ֣י פִ֣יהוּ מָרִ֑יתִי
שִׁמְעוּ־נָ֣א כָל־הָֽעַמִּ֗ים וּרְאוּ֙ מַכְאֹבִ֔י
בְּתוּלֹתַ֥י וּבַחוּרַ֖י הָלְכ֥וּ בַשֶּֽׁבִי ס
18So righteous is Yahweh himself, for I provoked his mouth.
Hear please, all the peoples, and see my sorrow.
My virgins and my chosen ones are gone into captivity. S
11
11
14
קָרָ֤אתִי לַֽמְאַהֲבַי֙
הֵ֣מָּה רִמּ֔וּנִי
כֹּהֲנַ֥י וּזְקֵנַ֖י בָּעִ֣יר גָּוָ֑עוּ
כִּֽי־בִקְשׁ֥וּ אֹ֙כֶל֙ לָ֔מוֹ וְיָשִׁ֖יבוּ אֶת־נַפְשָֽׁם ס
19Query I made to my lovers.
They themselves deceived me.
My priests and my elders expired in the city,
for they sought their food for their restoration. S
7
5
11
15
רְאֵ֨ה יְהוָ֤ה כִּֽי־צַר־לִי֙
מֵעַ֣י חֳמַרְמָ֔רוּ
נֶהְפַּ֤ךְ לִבִּי֙ בְּקִרְבִּ֔י כִּ֥י מָר֖וֹ מָרִ֑יתִי
מִח֥וּץ שִׁכְּלָה־חֶ֖רֶב
בַּבַּ֥יִת כַּמָּֽוֶת ס
20Regard Yahweh, for trouble is mine.
My inner parts are parched.
Changed is my heart within me for to provoke I have provoked.
Sword bereaves from the street,
in the house, it is as death. S
7
6
13
6
7
שָׁמְע֞וּ כִּ֧י נֶאֱנָחָ֣ה אָ֗נִי
אֵ֤ין מְנַחֵם֙ לִ֔י
כָּל־אֹ֨יְבַ֜י שָׁמְע֤וּ רָֽעָתִי֙
שָׂ֔שׂוּ כִּ֥י אַתָּ֖ה עָשִׂ֑יתָ
הֵבֵ֥אתָ יוֹם־קָרָ֖אתָ וְיִֽהְי֥וּ כָמֽוֹנִי ס
21So they have heard, for I myself sigh.
There is none to comfort me.
All my enemies hear of my evil.
They joy because you yourself have done it.
You will summon the day you have called and they will become as I am. S
9
5
8
8
14
תָּבֹ֨א כָל־רָעָתָ֤ם לְפָנֶ֙יךָ֙
וְעוֹלֵ֣ל לָ֔מוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר עוֹלַ֛לְתָּ לִ֖י
עַ֣ל כָּל־פְּשָׁעָ֑י
כִּֽי־רַבּ֥וֹת אַנְחֹתַ֖י וְלִבִּ֥י דַוָּֽי פ
22Therefore let all their evil come to your face
and be prodigal to them even as you have been prodigal to me
about all my transgressions
for abundant are my sighs and my heart is melancholy. P
10
12
5
11