Tuesday, January 10, 2017

Isaiah 9

As previously noted, the famous passages are different when a concordant set of glosses is used. The question remains of course whether the concordance is sufficient to the task. At times it is not. Here however, as in many KJV and other translations, the Christian influence is too pronounced and Christians cannot read the text without understanding how Jesus himself would have read it, but rather reading Jesus into it where he does not belong and failing to see how he does belong. In a word, it is with his ear and in his deed that we are to live, not in our own heads, making things up about him. This is no easy task. I am more comfortable at my computer playing at words than confronting a righteous taxi driver who takes up 5 parking slots while he lets off one handicapped person.

Each to its kin will show no pity! (v 18 below)

In verse 2 (verse numbers differ by 1 from English versions) I have used what is written rather than what is read (which sounds the same anyway - lo vs lo). What is written (לו=its) makes sense. What is read (לא=not) is confusing. Not that this text should not be confusing. Sometimes it is.

Here frequently, there is a singular pronoun (he or it) referring back to the people. In English I have let it stand sometimes as plural indicating the many, and sometimes as singular indicating a corporate view of the people. For we are not isolated individuals though we are legion. If you can read this, there are millions of others who have helped you from rocket scientists and satellite technicians to internet inventors and programmers - all those people 'behind the screen' that manipulate the photons that reach your eye. We don't need cathode ray tubes to hold them any more, but just look behind your flat screen. They are still there.

There are a number of hapaxes in this chapter. Each one is always a challenge especially if I find them in a semantic domain that is already full of similar words. Combust is an example below. (Shows as a spelling error! But I am only going to use it once of course.)

REB is quite good in this passage. Except for the gloss threatens in the refrain where I have stretched out. Why should the translator impose the 'meaning' when the context does not demand that conclusion? Surely it is as (more) likely that the hand is stretched out to be grasped as the means to life.

Verse 5(6) b,c REB
he will bear the symbol of dominion on his shoulder
and his title will be Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty Hero, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace.

משרה (dominion) is only used here in this verse and the next - derived from another rarely used word but perhaps related to Israel, ישר אל. I could use this word ...

When it comes to rulers, nobility, chiefs, princes, sultans etc, I have untangled some of the overlapping strands of tradition but at some expense to my sanity. One day I will figure out the best way to display my selections.

Here's a limited selection from my domain of Culture-Rule (it really needs culling and further separation - such a big task).
אדון lord, master,
אחשׁדרפנים satraps
אלף captain, (also) drove, educating, thousand,
אשׁף astrologists
בעל baal, husband, lordly, married, owned, owner,
חר freeborn
חרטם magicians
חשׁם ambassadors
טפסר marshals
לחשׁ conjurer
מלך king, queen, royalty, sovereign
משׁל governor
נדב prince, (also) freewill offering,
נשׂא principal
סגן prefect
סריס eunuch
סרן chieftain
עטר crown
פחה viceroy
פרתם patrician
קצה dictator
רב overlord
רדה ruler
רזן rule-makers
שׁבט sceptre (also) band, overlaps with another domain
שׁטר overseer
שׁלושׁ adjutant
שׁלט authority
שׁרביט mace
שׂר chief, nobility, sultan
שׂרה perseverance
שׂרר influence

Talk about walking in darkness!

Isaiah 9 Fn Min Max Syll
הָעָם֙ הַהֹלְכִ֣ים בַּחֹ֔שֶׁךְ רָא֖וּ א֣וֹר גָּד֑וֹל
יֹשְׁבֵי֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ צַלְמָ֔וֶת א֖וֹר נָגַ֥הּ עֲלֵיהֶֽם
1 The people who walk in the darkness have seen a great light.
Those sitting in the land of the shadow of death, light has illuminated them.
3e 4B 13
הִרְבִּ֣יתָ הַגּ֔וֹי ל֖וֹ הִגְדַּ֣לְתָּ הַשִּׂמְחָ֑ה
שָׂמְח֤וּ לְפָנֶ֙יךָ֙ כְּשִׂמְחַ֣ת בַּקָּצִ֔יר כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר יָגִ֖ילוּ בְּחַלְּקָ֥ם שָׁלָֽל
2 You have increased the nation. For it, you magnify gladness.
They are glad in your presence as with the gladness of the harvest, as they rejoice from the division of spoil.
3e 4C 13
כִּ֣י ׀ אֶת־עֹ֣ל סֻבֳּל֗וֹ וְאֵת֙ מַטֵּ֣ה שִׁכְמ֔וֹ שֵׁ֖בֶט הַנֹּגֵ֣שׂ בּ֑וֹ
הַחִתֹּ֖תָ כְּי֥וֹם מִדְיָֽן
3 B Because the shackle of its burden, and the rod of its backside, the sceptre of the taskmaster in it,
you have dismayed as on the day of Midian.
3e 4B 18
כִּ֤י כָל־סְאוֹן֙ סֹאֵ֣ן בְּרַ֔עַשׁ וְשִׂמְלָ֖ה מְגוֹלָלָ֣ה בְדָמִ֑ים
וְהָיְתָ֥ה לִשְׂרֵפָ֖ה מַאֲכֹ֥לֶת אֵֽשׁ
4 C For every boot booting in a quake, and shawl rolled in blood,
will be for incineration, fuel for fire.
3e 4C 19
כִּי־יֶ֣לֶד יֻלַּד־לָ֗נוּ בֵּ֚ן נִתַּן־לָ֔נוּ וַתְּהִ֥י הַמִּשְׂרָ֖ה עַל־שִׁכְמ֑וֹ
וַיִּקְרָ֨א שְׁמ֜וֹ פֶּ֠לֶא יוֹעֵץ֙ אֵ֣ל גִּבּ֔וֹר אֲבִיעַ֖ד שַׂר־שָׁלֽוֹם
5 For a newborn is born to us, a child is given to us, and perseverance will be on his backside,
and his name will be called wonderful counselor, valiant God, my father for ever, sultan of peace.
3e 4C 19
לְמַרְבֵּ֨ה הַמִּשְׂרָ֜ה וּלְשָׁל֣וֹם אֵֽין־קֵ֗ץ עַל־כִּסֵּ֤א דָוִד֙ וְעַל־מַמְלַכְתּ֔וֹ לְהָכִ֤ין אֹתָהּ֙ וּֽלְסַעֲדָ֔הּ בְּמִשְׁפָּ֖ט וּבִצְדָקָ֑ה
מֵעַתָּה֙ וְעַד־עוֹלָ֔ם קִנְאַ֛ת יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה־זֹּֽאת
6 Of the increase of the perseverance and for peace there is no end, on the throne of David and over his kingdom, to establish her and to confirm her in judgment and in righteousness,
from now and unto everlasting. The jealousy of Yahweh of hosts will do this.
3d 4C 37
דָּבָ֛ר שָׁלַ֥ח אֲדֹנָ֖י בְּיַעֲקֹ֑ב
וְנָפַ֖ל בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל
7 My Lord sent a word against Jacob,
and it will miscarry against Israel.
3d 4A 11
וְיָדְעוּ֙ הָעָ֣ם כֻּלּ֔וֹ אֶפְרַ֖יִם וְיוֹשֵׁ֣ב שֹׁמְר֑וֹן
בְּגַאֲוָ֛ה וּבְגֹ֥דֶל לֵבָ֖ב לֵאמֹֽר
8 And the people will know, all of them, Ephraim and the inhabitant of Samaria,
in the pride and self-promotion of heart, saying,
3d 4B 14
לְבֵנִ֥ים נָפָ֖לוּ וְגָזִ֣ית נִבְנֶ֑ה
שִׁקְמִ֣ים גֻּדָּ֔עוּ וַאֲרָזִ֖ים נַחֲלִֽיף
9 Bricks have fallen, so cut-stones we will build with.
Sycamores are chopped, so cedar we will renew.
3e 4B 11
וַיְשַׂגֵּ֧ב יְהוָ֛ה אֶת־צָרֵ֥י רְצִ֖ין עָלָ֑יו
וְאֶת־אֹיְבָ֖יו יְסַכְסֵֽךְ
10 And Yahweh will set on high the adversaries of Rezin over him,
and his enemies overshadowing.
3c 4A 12
אֲרָ֣ם מִקֶּ֗דֶם וּפְלִשְׁתִּים֙ מֵֽאָח֔וֹר וַיֹּאכְל֥וּ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּכָל־פֶּ֑ה
בְּכָל־זֹאת֙ לֹא־שָׁ֣ב אַפּ֔וֹ וְע֖וֹד יָד֥וֹ נְטוּיָֽה
11 Aram before, Philistines from behind, and they will devour Israel in every mouth.
In all this his anger will not turn, but yet his hand is stretched out.
3e 4B 21
וְהָעָ֥ם לֹא־שָׁ֖ב עַד־הַמַּכֵּ֑הוּ
וְאֶת־יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת לֹ֥א דָרָֽשׁוּ
12 And the people did not turn to the one that strikes them,
and Yahweh of hosts they do not search out.
3e 4A 10
וַיַּכְרֵ֨ת יְהוָ֜ה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֗ל רֹ֧אשׁ וְזָנָ֛ב כִּפָּ֥ה וְאַגְמ֖וֹן י֥וֹם אֶחָֽד 13 So Yahweh will cut off from Israel head and tail, palm branch and pool in one day. 3c 3g 21
זָקֵ֥ן וּנְשׂוּא־פָנִ֖ים ה֣וּא הָרֹ֑אשׁ
וְנָבִ֥יא מֽוֹרֶה־שֶּׁ֖קֶר ה֥וּא הַזָּנָֽב
14 One who is old and shows partiality, he is the head,
and a prophet instructing falsehood, he is the tail.
3e 4B 9
וַיִּֽהְי֛וּ מְאַשְּׁרֵ֥י הָֽעָם־הַזֶּ֖ה מַתְעִ֑ים
וּמְאֻשָּׁרָ֖יו מְבֻלָּעִֽים
15 And it happens that those who make this people happy make them wander,
and those making them happy are being swallowed up.
3d 4A 12
עַל־כֵּ֨ן עַל־בַּחוּרָ֜יו לֹֽא־יִשְׂמַ֣ח ׀ אֲדֹנָ֗י וְאֶת־יְתֹמָ֤יו וְאֶת־אַלְמְנֹתָיו֙ לֹ֣א יְרַחֵ֔ם כִּ֤י כֻלּוֹ֙ חָנֵ֣ף וּמֵרַ֔ע וְכָל־פֶּ֖ה דֹּבֵ֣ר נְבָלָ֑ה
בְּכָל־זֹאת֙ לֹא־שָׁ֣ב אַפּ֔וֹ וְע֖וֹד יָד֥וֹ נְטוּיָֽה
16 Therefore over their youths in their prime my Lord is not glad. And on their orphans and their widows he will not have compassion, for everyone is a hypocrite and an evildoer and every mouth speaks senselessness.
In all this his anger will not turn, but yet his hand is stretched out.
3e 4C 43
כִּֽי־בָעֲרָ֤ה כָאֵשׁ֙ רִשְׁעָ֔ה שָׁמִ֥יר וָשַׁ֖יִת תֹּאכֵ֑ל
וַתִּצַּת֙ בְּסִֽבְכֵ֣י הַיַּ֔עַר וַיִּֽתְאַבְּכ֖וּ גֵּא֥וּת עָשָֽׁן
17 For wickedness kindles as fire. Spike and gibe it devours,
and will char the thickets of the forest, and they will braid together a pride of smoke.
3e 4C 14
בְּעֶבְרַ֛ת יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת נֶעְתַּ֣ם אָ֑רֶץ
וַיְהִ֤י הָעָם֙ כְּמַאֲכֹ֣לֶת אֵ֔שׁ אִ֥ישׁ אֶל־אָחִ֖יו לֹ֥א יַחְמֹֽלוּ
18 In the fury of Yahweh of hosts, combusted is earth,
and the people become as fuel for fire. Each to its kin will show no pity.
3d 4C 12
וַיִּגְזֹ֤ר עַל־יָמִין֙ וְרָעֵ֔ב וַיֹּ֥אכַל עַל־שְׂמֹ֖אול וְלֹ֣א שָׂבֵ֑עוּ
אִ֥ישׁ בְּשַׂר־זְרֹע֖וֹ יֹאכֵֽלוּ
19 And one adjudicates on the right hand and is hungry, and he eats on the left hand and is not satisfied.
Each the flesh of his seed will eat.
3e 4C 21
מְנַשֶּׁ֣ה אֶת־אֶפְרַ֗יִם וְאֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ אֶת־מְנַשֶּׁ֔ה יַחְדָּ֥ו הֵ֖מָּה עַל־יְהוּדָ֑ה
בְּכָל־זֹאת֙ לֹא־שָׁ֣ב אַפּ֔וֹ וְע֖וֹד יָד֥וֹ נְטוּיָֽה
20 Manasseh, Ephraim and Ephraim, Manasseh. They will be as one against Judah.
In all this his anger will not turn, but yet his hand is stretched out.
3e 4B 21

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