Monday, November 7, 2016

Hosea 12

The verse numbers differ by one with English editions. This chapter is somewhat incoherent to me, with unfinished sentences and difficult pronoun switches. What is the significance of the reminder of the Jacob-messenger wrestling in Genesis? Note the difficulty of translating the root און, mischief or virility or vigour? And the similar sounding עון, iniquity. In verse 15 Ephraim grieves requires an object on which the vexation is imposed, i.e. God, but there is no object in the text. The object (his lord, his master) is clear from the final word of the second half of the verse (which also resolves the ambiguous pronoun after the atnach).

You make whatever sense of the passage as you think is good. Here's that last verse in music. You can always sing this with expression that could not be easily rendered in words.
[Ephraim provokes to bitter grief, // so he abandoned his blood upon him, and his reproach his master will return to him.] I found a way to get the verse to read without the object of grief expressed.

Who are the players? What do the words, Judah, Jacob, Israel, Ephraim signify? (Note the switch from he to us in verse 5. Who is the you of verse 7?)

There are several roots that recur more than twice and another 14 that recur exactly twice. Too many for comfortable viewing. These that follow show a little of the continuing tone of the passage with initial focus on Ephraim and final focus on the prophets - and some wordplay on watch and as noted, on virility or vigour or mischief.
Word / Gloss123456789VsStem
אפרים Ephraim
1אפרים
ישׂראל Israel
1ישׂראל
עם with
1עם
ועם and with
1עם
אפרים Ephraim
2אפרים
עם the people of
2עם
למצרים into Egypt
2מצרים
עם the people of
3עם
ישׁיב he will turn
3שׁוב
ובאונו in his vigour
4און
ימצאנו he found him
5מצא
עמנו with us
5עם
תשׁוב you will return
7שׁוב
שׁמר watch
7שׁמר
אפרים Ephraim
9אפרים
מצאתי I found
9מצא
און vigour
9און
ימצאו will find
9מצא
מצרים Egypt
10מצרים
הנביאים the prophets
11נביא
הנביאים the prophets
11נביא
און vigour
12און
ישׂראל Israel
13ישׂראל
שׁמר he watches
13שׁמר
ובנביא but by a prophet
14נביא
ישׂראל Israel
14ישׂראל
ממצרים from Egypt
14מצרים
ובנביא and by a prophet
14נביא
נשׁמר was he watched
14שׁמר
אפרים Ephraim
15אפרים
ישׁיב will return
15שׁוב
Hosea 12 Min Max
סְבָבֻ֤נִי בְכַ֙חַשׁ֙ אֶפְרַ֔יִם וּבְמִרְמָ֖ה בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וִֽיהוּדָ֗ה עֹ֥ד רָד֙ עִם־אֵ֔ל וְעִם־קְדוֹשִׁ֖ים נֶאֱמָֽן
1 Ephraim surrounds me with dissimulation, and with deceit, the house of Israel,
and Judah ever is restless with the One, and with the holy ones is faithful.
3e 4C 16
15
אֶפְרַ֜יִם רֹעֶ֥ה ר֙וּחַ֙ וְרֹדֵ֣ף קָדִ֔ים כָּל־הַיּ֕וֹם כָּזָ֥ב וָשֹׁ֖ד יַרְבֶּ֑ה
וּבְרִית֙ עִם־אַשּׁ֣וּר יִכְרֹ֔תוּ וְשֶׁ֖מֶן לְמִצְרַ֥יִם יוּבָֽל
2 Ephraim tends wind and pursues the east wind. All the day long, lie and devastation increase,
and a covenant with the people of Ashur they cut, and oil into Egypt is escorted.
3e 4B 20
16
וְרִ֥יב לַֽיהוָ֖ה עִם־יְהוּדָ֑ה
וְלִפְקֹ֤ד עַֽל־יַעֲקֹב֙ כִּדְרָכָ֔יו כְּמַעֲלָלָ֖יו יָשִׁ֥יב לֽוֹ
3 And Yahweh has contention with the people of Judah,
and will visit on Jacob according to his ways. According to his practice, he will turn to him.
3e 4C 8
18
בַּבֶּ֖טֶן עָקַ֣ב אֶת־אָחִ֑יו
וּבְאוֹנ֖וֹ שָׂרָ֥ה אֶת־אֱלֹהִֽים
4 In the belly he took his brother by the heel.
In his vigour he persevered with God.
3e 4B 8
9
וָיָּ֤שַׂר אֶל־מַלְאָךְ֙ וַיֻּכָ֔ל בָּכָ֖ה וַיִּתְחַנֶּן־ל֑וֹ
בֵּֽית־אֵל֙ יִמְצָאֶ֔נּוּ וְשָׁ֖ם יְדַבֵּ֥ר עִמָּֽנוּ
5 So he had influence with a messenger, and he overpowered. He wept and made supplication to him. Bethel, he found him, and there he spoke with us. 3e 4C 16
14
וַֽיהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י הַצְּבָא֑וֹת
יְהוָ֖ה זִכְרֽוֹ
6 And Yahweh, the God of hosts,
Yahweh, his remembrance.
3e 4B 8
4
וְאַתָּ֖ה בֵּאלֹהֶ֣יךָ תָשׁ֑וּב
חֶ֤סֶד וּמִשְׁפָּט֙ שְׁמֹ֔ר וְקַוֵּ֥ה אֶל־אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ תָּמִֽיד
7 But you, in your God, you will return.
Mercy and judgment, watch. And wait on your God continually.
3e 4C 9
17
כְּנַ֗עַן בְּיָד֛וֹ מֹאזְנֵ֥י מִרְמָ֖ה לַעֲשֹׁ֥ק אָהֵֽב 8 Canaan, in his hand are deceitful balances. He loves to oppress. 3d 3g 15
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֶפְרַ֔יִם אַ֣ךְ עָשַׁ֔רְתִּי מָצָ֥אתִי א֖וֹן לִ֑י
כָּל־יְגִיעַ֕י לֹ֥א יִמְצְאוּ־לִ֖י עָוֺ֥ן אֲשֶׁר־חֵֽטְא
9 And Ephraim said, But I am rich. I found my vigour.
All my exertions will not find iniquity for me that is sin.
3e 4B 14
14
וְאָנֹכִ֛י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם
עֹ֛ד אוֹשִֽׁיבְךָ֥ בָאֳהָלִ֖ים כִּימֵ֥י מוֹעֵֽד
10 And I am Yahweh your God, from the land of Egypt.
Yet I will have you sit in tents as in the days of the appointed time.
3d 4B 16
12
וְדִבַּ֙רְתִּי֙ עַל־הַנְּבִיאִ֔ים וְאָנֹכִ֖י חָז֣וֹן הִרְבֵּ֑יתִי
וּבְיַ֥ד הַנְּבִיאִ֖ים אֲדַמֶּֽה
11 And I have spoken by the prophets, and I, I have increased visions,
and by the hand of the prophets, I will whisper.
3e 4B 17
8
אִם־גִּלְעָ֥ד אָ֙וֶן֙ אַךְ־שָׁ֣וְא הָי֔וּ בַּגִּלְגָּ֖ל שְׁוָרִ֣ים זִבֵּ֑חוּ
גַּ֤ם מִזְבְּחוֹתָם֙ כְּגַלִּ֔ים עַ֖ל תַּלְמֵ֥י שָׂדָֽי
12 Gilead? vigour? but vanity they are. In Gilgal, bulls they offer.
Also their sacrifices are as waves over the ridges of the field.
3e 4C 18
13
וַיִּבְרַ֥ח יַעֲקֹ֖ב שְׂדֵ֣ה אֲרָ֑ם
וַיַּעֲבֹ֤ד יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ בְּאִשָּׁ֔ה וּבְאִשָּׁ֖ה שָׁמָֽר
13 And Jacob ran away to the field of Aram,
and Israel served as a wife, and as a wife he watches.
3e 4C 10
15
וּבְנָבִ֕יא הֶעֱלָ֧ה יְהוָ֛ה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם
וּבְנָבִ֖יא נִשְׁמָֽר
14 But by a prophet Yahweh had Israel ascend from Egypt,
and by a prophet was he watched.
3c 4A 16
5
הִכְעִ֥יס אֶפְרַ֖יִם תַּמְרוּרִ֑ים
וְדָמָיו֙ עָלָ֣יו יִטּ֔וֹשׁ וְחֶ֨רְפָּת֔וֹ יָשִׁ֥יב ל֖וֹ אֲדֹנָֽיו
15 Ephraim provokes to bitter grief,
so he abandoned his blood upon him, and his reproach his master will return to him.
3e 4B 7
17


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