Yahweh then asks - What are you to me - concerning the cities and nations that are not Israel. This is a very good question. What are the nations to this God? This passage is used by the writers of the New Testament in the mouth of Jesus in Rev 4:15 and perhaps Mark 4:29. Revelation is reframing the whole prophetic corpus around the death of Jesus. This one event remains for me formative, but understanding how the NT writers get to use the OT in this way is more than a lifetime's work and there are many short-circuits if the work in a person's mind is done too quickly.
Traditional translations sidestep the difficult verse 19. I have given it as a regular possessive construct, the violence is attributed to the children of Judah, not objectively but subjectively. I rarely read a construct as an objective genitive.
Sometimes, beloved reader, the words are edifying and clearer and sometimes they are dark and muddy. We walk together through these verses whatever the weather. If we walk again, who knows, the weather might have changed. Note also the sense of rule in the word 'to sit'. That's a peculiarity among many in my readings. It has been suggested to me in conversation that the entire OT is about governance, ruling the human being and the human being ruling. In these election days, maybe we should pay attention to who gets to sit in the seat of government as Prime Minister or President. (Mind you we know that nationalism is no solution either.)
Music is below the text. The first long recitations [I will collect all the nations] are on the low E in verses 1 and 2. After the rest there is a 14 beat recitation on A. [and I will judge with them over my people and my inheritance]. Note that collective I as Yahweh is identified with his chosen Israel. [Red flag. Dangerous implications for power abuse].
Word recurrence is extensive both in this chapter and between chapters 1 and 4. Tables are too big to see much.
|כִּ֗י הִנֵּ֛ה בַּיָּמִ֥ים הָהֵ֖מָּה וּבָעֵ֣ת הַהִ֑יא |
אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָשִׁ֛יב אֶת־שְׁב֥וּת יְהוּדָ֖ה וִירוּשָׁלִָֽם
|1||~||For behold in those days and at that time, |
that I restore the captivity of Judah and Jerusalem,
|וְקִבַּצְתִּי֙ אֶת־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם וְה֣וֹרַדְתִּ֔ים אֶל־עֵ֖מֶק יְהֽוֹשָׁפָ֑ט |
וְנִשְׁפַּטְתִּ֨י עִמָּ֜ם שָׁ֗ם עַל־עַמִּ֨י וְנַחֲלָתִ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר פִּזְּר֣וּ בַגּוֹיִ֔ם וְאֶת־אַרְצִ֖י חִלֵּֽקוּ
|2||I will collect all the nations and make them descend to the valley of Yahweh-judges, |
and I will judge with them over my people and my inheritance Israel whom they have scattered and my land they have divided.
|וְאֶל־עַמִּ֖י יַדּ֣וּ גוֹרָ֑ל |
וַיִּתְּנ֤וּ הַיֶּ֙לֶד֙ בַּזּוֹנָ֔ה וְהַיַּלְדָּ֛ה מָכְר֥וּ בַיַּ֖יִן וַיִּשְׁתּֽוּ
|3||And to my people they toss the die, |
and they give the male juvenile into harlotry, and sell the female juvenile that they may imbibe.
|וְ֠גַם מָה־אַתֶּ֥ם לִי֙ צֹ֣ר וְצִיד֔וֹן וְכֹ֖ל גְּלִיל֣וֹת פְּלָ֑שֶׁת |
הַגְּמ֗וּל אַתֶּם֙ מְשַׁלְּמִ֣ים עָלָ֔י וְאִם־גֹּמְלִ֤ים אַתֶּם֙ עָלַ֔י קַ֣ל מְהֵרָ֔ה אָשִׁ֥יב גְּמֻלְכֶ֖ם בְּרֹאשְׁכֶֽם
|4||~||And furthermore, what are you to me, Tyre and Sidon, and all the bounds of Philistia? |
Will you yourselves get even by repaying me? And if you are getting even with me, lightly, swiftly, will I return your recompense on your heads,
|אֲשֶׁר־כַּסְפִּ֥י וּזְהָבִ֖י לְקַחְתֶּ֑ם |
וּמַֽחֲמַדַּי֙ הַטֹּבִ֔ים הֲבֵאתֶ֖ם לְהֵיכְלֵיכֶֽם
|5||that you have taken my silver and my gold, |
and my attractive things, the good ones, you have brought to your temple.
|וּבְנֵ֤י יְהוּדָה֙ וּבְנֵ֣י יְרוּשָׁלִַ֔ם מְכַרְתֶּ֖ם לִבְנֵ֣י הַיְּוָנִ֑ים |
לְמַ֥עַן הַרְחִיקָ֖ם מֵעַ֥ל גְּבוּלָֽם
|6||And the children of Judah and the children of Israel you have sold to the children of the Greeks, |
in order to put them far away from their borders.
|הִנְנִ֣י מְעִירָ֔ם מִן־הַ֨מָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁר־מְכַרְתֶּ֥ם אֹתָ֖ם שָׁ֑מָּה |
וַהֲשִׁבֹתִ֥י גְמֻלְכֶ֖ם בְּרֹאשְׁכֶֽם
|7||Behold me, rousing them from the place there where you have sold them, |
so will I return your recompense on your heads?
|וּמָכַרְתִּ֞י אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶ֣ם וְאֶת־בְּנֽוֹתֵיכֶ֗ם בְּיַד֙ בְּנֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה וּמְכָר֥וּם לִשְׁבָאיִ֖ם אֶל־גּ֣וֹי רָח֑וֹק |
כִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה דִּבֵּֽר ס
|8||And I will sell your sons and your daughters into the hand of the children of Judah and they will sell them to the Sabeans, to a distant nation, |
for Yahweh has spoken. S
|קִרְאוּ־זֹאת֙ בַּגּוֹיִ֔ם קַדְּשׁ֖וּ מִלְחָמָ֑ה |
הָעִ֙ירוּ֙ הַגִּבּוֹרִ֔ים יִגְּשׁ֣וּ יַֽעֲל֔וּ כֹּ֖ל אַנְשֵׁ֥י הַמִּלְחָמָֽה
|9||Proclaim this among the nations. Sanctify a battle. |
Arouse the valiant. Let all the warriors make overture. Let them come up.
|כֹּ֤תּוּ אִתֵּיכֶם֙ לַֽחֲרָב֔וֹת וּמַזְמְרֹֽתֵיכֶ֖ם לִרְמָחִ֑ים |
הַֽחַלָּ֔שׁ יֹאמַ֖ר גִּבּ֥וֹר אָֽנִי
|10||C||Beat your plowshares into swords and your pruning hooks into lances. |
Let the vanquished say, I am one who prevails.
|ע֣וּשׁוּ וָבֹ֧אוּ כָֽל־הַגּוֹיִ֛ם מִסָּבִ֖יב וְנִקְבָּ֑צוּ |
שָׁ֕מָּה הַֽנְחַ֥ת יְהוָ֖ה גִּבּוֹרֶֽיךָ
|11||B||Muster and come, all the surrounding nations and be collected. |
There pin, Yahweh, your valiant ones.
|יֵע֙וֹרוּ֙ וְיַעֲל֣וּ הַגּוֹיִ֔ם אֶל־עֵ֖מֶק יְהֽוֹשָׁפָ֑ט |
כִּ֣י שָׁ֗ם אֵשֵׁ֛ב לִשְׁפֹּ֥ט אֶת־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֖ם מִסָּבִֽיב
|12||~||Let the nations be aroused and come up to the valley of Yahweh-judges, |
for there I will sit to judge all the surrounding nations.
|שִׁלְח֣וּ מַגָּ֔ל כִּ֥י בָשַׁ֖ל קָצִ֑יר |
בֹּ֤אֽוּ רְדוּ֙ כִּֽי־מָ֣לְאָה גַּ֔ת הֵשִׁ֙יקוּ֙ הַיְקָבִ֔ים כִּ֥י רַבָּ֖ה רָעָתָֽם
|13||Send for a sickle, for the harvest is seething. |
Come, descend, for vat is full, bountiful the casks, for abundant is their evil.
|הֲמוֹנִ֣ים הֲמוֹנִ֔ים בְּעֵ֖מֶק הֶֽחָר֑וּץ |
כִּ֤י קָרוֹב֙ י֣וֹם יְהוָ֔ה בְּעֵ֖מֶק הֶחָרֽוּץ
|14||Tumultuous tumult in the valley of decision, |
for near is the day of Yahweh in the valley of decision.
|שֶׁ֥מֶשׁ וְיָרֵ֖חַ קָדָ֑רוּ |
וְכוֹכָבִ֖ים אָסְפ֥וּ נָגְהָֽם
|15||f||Sun and moon were in mourning, |
and stars gather their illumination.
|וַיהוָ֞ה מִצִּיּ֣וֹן יִשְׁאָ֗ג וּמִירוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ יִתֵּ֣ן קוֹל֔וֹ וְרָעֲשׁ֖וּ שָׁמַ֣יִם וָאָ֑רֶץ |
וַֽיהוָה֙ מַֽחֲסֶ֣ה לְעַמּ֔וֹ וּמָע֖וֹז לִבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
|16||But Yahweh from Zion roars and from Jerusalem gives his voice and heavens and earth quake, |
but Yahweh is the refuge of his people and the stronghold to the children of Israel.
|וִֽידַעְתֶּ֗ם כִּ֣י אֲנִ֤י יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹ֣הֵיכֶ֔ם שֹׁכֵ֖ן בְּצִיּ֣וֹן הַר־קָדְשִׁ֑י |
וְהָיְתָ֤ה יְרוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ קֹ֔דֶשׁ וְזָרִ֥ים לֹא־יַֽעַבְרוּ־בָ֖הּ עֽוֹד ס
|17||And you will know that I am Yahweh, your God, dwelling in Zion, my holy hill, |
and Jerusalem will become holy and strangers will not pass through her any more.
|וְהָיָה֩ בַיּ֨וֹם הַה֜וּא יִטְּפ֧וּ הֶהָרִ֣ים עָסִ֗יס וְהַגְּבָעוֹת֙ תֵּלַ֣כְנָה חָלָ֔ב וְכָל־אֲפִיקֵ֥י יְהוּדָ֖ה יֵ֣לְכוּ מָ֑יִם |
וּמַעְיָ֗ן מִבֵּ֤ית יְהוָה֙ יֵצֵ֔א וְהִשְׁקָ֖ה אֶת־נַ֥חַל הַשִּׁטִּֽים
|18||And it will happen in that day, the hills will drop new wine from the pressing and the hillocks will gush with milk and all the channels of Judah will gush with water, |
and a spring will emerge from the house of Yahweh and will give drink to the inheritance of Shittim.
|מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ לִשְׁמָמָ֣ה תִֽהְיֶ֔ה וֶאֱד֕וֹם לְמִדְבַּ֥ר שְׁמָמָ֖ה תִּֽהְיֶ֑ה |
מֵֽחֲמַס֙ בְּנֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־שָׁפְכ֥וּ דָם־נָקִ֖יא בְּאַרְצָֽם
|19||Egypt will be a desolation, and Edom will be a desolate wilderness, |
from the violence of the children of Judah, that they poured out innocent blood in their land.
|וִיהוּדָ֖ה לְעוֹלָ֣ם תֵּשֵׁ֑ב |
וִירוּשָׁלִַ֖ם לְד֥וֹר וָדֽוֹר
|20||And Judah will sit for ever, |
and Jerusalem from generation to generation.
|וְנִקֵּ֖יתִי דָּמָ֣ם לֹֽא־נִקֵּ֑יתִי |
וַֽיהוָ֖ה שֹׁכֵ֥ן בְּצִיּֽוֹן
|21||And I will hold innocent their blood that I did not hold innocent, |
but Yahweh dwells in Zion.