In the naming of the ancestors, there are some funny aspects in this narrative. My glosses are strange of course. But it is here with the begats that people begin to stop reading these texts. One ought to get further than the begats. Adam is used alone as a name without the article for the first time in verse 26 of this chapter.
This article by Wil Gafney on Reading the Bible through Marginal/ized Female Characters begins a view of the history with a very different perspective.
|וְהָ֣אָדָ֔ם יָדַ֖ע אֶת־חַוָּ֣ה אִשְׁתּ֑וֹ |
וַתַּ֙הַר֙ וַתֵּ֣לֶד אֶת־קַ֔יִן וַתֹּ֕אמֶר קָנִ֥יתִי אִ֖ישׁ אֶת־יְהוָֽה
|1||And the one from the humus knew Eve his wife, |
and she became pregnant and she gave birth to Cain, for she said, I have acquired another person with Yahweh.
|וַתֹּ֣סֶף לָלֶ֔דֶת אֶת־אָחִ֖יו אֶת־הָ֑בֶל |
וַֽיְהִי־הֶ֙בֶל֙ רֹ֣עֵה צֹ֔אן וְקַ֕יִן הָיָ֖ה עֹבֵ֥ד אֲדָמָֽה
|2||And she again gave birth to his brother, to Abel. |
And Abel was a shepherd of sheep, but Cain was a servant of the ground.
|וַֽיְהִ֖י מִקֵּ֣ץ יָמִ֑ים |
וַיָּבֵ֨א קַ֜יִן מִפְּרִ֧י הָֽאֲדָמָ֛ה מִנְחָ֖ה לַֽיהוָֽה
|3||And it happened at the end of days, |
that Cain brought from the fruit of the ground, a gift for Yahweh.
|וְהֶ֨בֶל הֵבִ֥יא גַם־ה֛וּא מִבְּכֹר֥וֹת צֹאנ֖וֹ וּמֵֽחֶלְבֵהֶ֑ן |
וַיִּ֣שַׁע יְהוָ֔ה אֶל־הֶ֖בֶל וְאֶל־מִנְחָתֽוֹ
|4||And Abel brought also himself from the firstborn of his flock and its choicest. |
And Yahweh had respect to Abel and to his gift.
|וְאֶל־קַ֥יִן וְאֶל־מִנְחָת֖וֹ לֹ֣א שָׁעָ֑ה |
וַיִּ֤חַר לְקַ֙יִן֙ מְאֹ֔ד וַֽיִּפְּל֖וּ פָּנָֽיו
|5||But to Cain and to his gift he did not have respect. |
And for Cain, he burned much with anger and his face fell.
|וַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־קָ֑יִן |
לָ֚מָּה חָ֣רָה לָ֔ךְ וְלָ֖מָּה נָפְל֥וּ פָנֶֽיךָ
|6||And Yahweh said to Cain, |
Why is it for you to burn with anger, and why has your face fallen?
|הֲל֤וֹא אִם־תֵּיטִיב֙ שְׂאֵ֔ת וְאִם֙ לֹ֣א תֵיטִ֔יב לַפֶּ֖תַח חַטָּ֣את רֹבֵ֑ץ |
וְאֵלֶ֙יךָ֙ תְּשׁ֣וּקָת֔וֹ וְאַתָּ֖ה תִּמְשָׁל־בּֽוֹ
|7||C||Will it not be that if you do well you will be lifted up? And if you do not do well sin reclines at the opening, |
and its aspiration is against you but you yourself will govern in it.
|וַיֹּ֥אמֶר קַ֖יִן אֶל־הֶ֣בֶל אָחִ֑יו |
וַֽיְהִי֙ בִּהְיוֹתָ֣ם בַּשָּׂדֶ֔ה וַיָּ֥קָם קַ֛יִן אֶל־הֶ֥בֶל אָחִ֖יו וַיַּהַרְגֵֽהוּ
|8||And Cain talked to Abel his brother. |
And it happened when they were in the field, that Cain arose against Abel his brother and slew him.
|וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ אֶל־קַ֔יִן אֵ֖י הֶ֣בֶל אָחִ֑יךָ |
וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ לֹ֣א יָדַ֔עְתִּי הֲשֹׁמֵ֥ר אָחִ֖י אָנֹֽכִי
|9||And Yahweh said to Cain, Where is Abel your brother? |
And he said, I do not know. Am I my brother's guardian?
|וַיֹּ֖אמֶר מֶ֣ה עָשִׂ֑יתָ |
ק֚וֹל דְּמֵ֣י אָחִ֔יךָ צֹעֲקִ֥ים אֵלַ֖י מִן־הָֽאֲדָמָֽה
|10||And he said, What have you done? |
The voice of your brother's blood cries out to me from the ground.
|וְעַתָּ֖ה אָר֣וּר אָ֑תָּה |
מִן־הָֽאֲדָמָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר פָּצְתָ֣ה אֶת־פִּ֔יהָ לָקַ֛חַת אֶת־דְּמֵ֥י אָחִ֖יךָ מִיָּדֶֽךָ
|11||So now cursed are you, |
from the ground that parted open her mouth to receive the blood of your brother from your hand.
|כִּ֤י תַֽעֲבֹד֙ אֶת־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה לֹֽא־תֹסֵ֥ף תֵּת־כֹּחָ֖הּ לָ֑ךְ |
נָ֥ע וָנָ֖ד תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה בָאָֽרֶץ
|12||C||For though you serve the ground, she will not again yield her power to you. |
A vagabond and aimless you will be in the earth.
|וַיֹּ֥אמֶר קַ֖יִן אֶל־יְהוָ֑ה |
גָּד֥וֹל עֲוֺנִ֖י מִנְּשֹֽׂא
|13||And Cain said to Yahweh, |
My iniquity is greater than I can bear.
|הֵן֩ גֵּרַ֨שְׁתָּ אֹתִ֜י הַיּ֗וֹם מֵעַל֙ פְּנֵ֣י הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה וּמִפָּנֶ֖יךָ אֶסָּתֵ֑ר |
וְהָיִ֜יתִי נָ֤ע וָנָד֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ וְהָיָ֥ה כָל־מֹצְאִ֖י יַֽהַרְגֵֽנִי
|14||~||Lo, you expel me from the surface of the ground and from your face I will be hid, |
and I will be a vagabond and aimless in the earth and it will happen that anyone who finds me will slay me.
|וַיֹּ֧אמֶר ל֣וֹ יְהוָ֗ה לָכֵן֙ כָּל־הֹרֵ֣ג קַ֔יִן שִׁבְעָתַ֖יִם יֻקָּ֑ם |
וַיָּ֨שֶׂם יְהוָ֤ה לְקַ֙יִן֙ א֔וֹת לְבִלְתִּ֥י הַכּוֹת־אֹת֖וֹ כָּל־מֹצְאֽוֹ
|15||And Yahweh said to him, Therefore all who slay Cain seven-fold he will be avenged. |
And Yahweh set up for Cain a sign lest anyone finding him should strike him.
|וַיֵּ֥צֵא קַ֖יִן מִלִּפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה |
וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב בְּאֶֽרֶץ־נ֖וֹד קִדְמַת־עֵֽדֶן
|16||So Cain went forth from the presence of Yahweh, |
and settled in the land of the aimless east of Eden.
|וַיֵּ֤דַע קַ֙יִן֙ אֶת־אִשְׁתּ֔וֹ וַתַּ֖הַר וַתֵּ֣לֶד אֶת־חֲנ֑וֹךְ |
וַֽיְהִי֙ בֹּ֣נֶה עִ֔יר וַיִּקְרָא֙ שֵׁ֣ם הָעִ֔יר כְּשֵׁ֖ם בְּנ֥וֹ חֲנֽוֹךְ
|17||and Cain knew his wife and she became pregnant, and she gave birth to Enoch, |
and he was built a city, and he called the name of the city like the name of his son, Enoch.
|וַיִּוָּלֵ֤ד לַֽחֲנוֹךְ֙ אֶת־עִירָ֔ד וְעִירָ֕ד יָלַ֖ד אֶת־מְחֽוּיָאֵ֑ל |
וּמְחִיּיָאֵ֗ל יָלַד֙ אֶת־מְת֣וּשָׁאֵ֔ל וּמְתוּשָׁאֵ֖ל יָלַ֥ד אֶת־לָֽמֶךְ
|18||And to Enoch was born Irad, and Irad had Mehujel, |
and Mehujel had Methusael, and Methusael had Lamech.
|וַיִּֽקַּֽח־ל֥וֹ לֶ֖מֶךְ שְׁתֵּ֣י נָשִׁ֑ים |
שֵׁ֤ם הָֽאַחַת֙ עָדָ֔ה וְשֵׁ֥ם הַשֵּׁנִ֖ית צִלָּֽה
|19||And Lamech took for himself two wives. |
The name of the first, Adah, and the name of the second Her-Shadow.
|וַתֵּ֥לֶד עָדָ֖ה אֶת־יָבָ֑ל |
ה֣וּא הָיָ֔ה אֲבִ֕י יֹשֵׁ֥ב אֹ֖הֶל וּמִקְנֶֽה
|20||And Adah gave birth to Jabal. |
He is the father of those who sit in a tent and acquire.
|וְשֵׁ֥ם אָחִ֖יו יוּבָ֑ל |
ה֣וּא הָיָ֔ה אֲבִ֕י כָּל־תֹּפֵ֥שׂ כִּנּ֖וֹר וְעוּגָֽב
|21||And the name of his brother is Jubal. |
He is the father of all who take up harp or pipe.
|וְצִלָּ֣ה גַם־הִ֗וא יָֽלְדָה֙ אֶת־תּ֣וּבַל קַ֔יִן לֹטֵ֕שׁ כָּל־חֹרֵ֥שׁ נְחֹ֖שֶׁת וּבַרְזֶ֑ל |
וַֽאֲח֥וֹת תּֽוּבַל־קַ֖יִן נַֽעֲמָֽה
|22||And Zillah (her shadow) herself gave birth to 'She-will-be-brought-to-Cain' (Tubalcain), one who hones every edged tool of brass and iron. |
and the sister of Tubalcain was Naamah (pleasure).
|וַיֹּ֨אמֶר לֶ֜מֶךְ לְנָשָׁ֗יו עָדָ֤ה וְצִלָּה֙ שְׁמַ֣עַן קוֹלִ֔י נְשֵׁ֣י לֶ֔מֶךְ הַאְזֵ֖נָּה אִמְרָתִ֑י |
כִּ֣י אִ֤ישׁ הָרַ֙גְתִּי֙ לְפִצְעִ֔י וְיֶ֖לֶד לְחַבֻּרָתִֽי
|23||and Lamech said to his wives Adah and Zillah, Hear |
my voice, wives of Lamech, give ear to what I say,
for I have slain someone for inflicting wounds on me, a juvenile for my stripes.
|כִּ֥י שִׁבְעָתַ֖יִם יֻקַּם־קָ֑יִן |
וְלֶ֖מֶךְ שִׁבְעִ֥ים וְשִׁבְעָֽה
|24||f||For seven times vengeance for Cain, |
and Lamech seventy and seven.
|וַיֵּ֨דַע אָדָ֥ם עוֹד֙ אֶת־אִשְׁתּ֔וֹ וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֔ן וַתִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ שֵׁ֑ת |
כִּ֣י שָֽׁת־לִ֤י אֱלֹהִים֙ זֶ֣רַע אַחֵ֔ר תַּ֣חַת הֶ֔בֶל כִּ֥י הֲרָג֖וֹ קָֽיִן
|25||And Adam knew still his wife, and she gave birth to a son, and she called his name Seth, |
for God imposed for me another seed instead of Abel, (futility), for Cain slew him.
|וּלְשֵׁ֤ת גַּם־הוּא֙ יֻלַּד־בֵּ֔ן וַיִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ אֱנ֑וֹשׁ |
אָ֣ז הוּחַ֔ל לִקְרֹ֖א בְּשֵׁ֥ם יְהוָֽה
|26||And to Seth also himself was born a son, and he called |
his name Enosh (mortal).
Then began entreaty: to call in the name of Yahweh.