Thursday, June 2, 2016

Zechariah 1

What's in a gloss? Is for example ארץ land or is it earth? How can one tell? Even if it is land, is it a specific land? The frequency of the word in Zechariah (one in every 5 verses .2) is among the highest. The count is shared by Genesis and Jeremiah. Only Deuteronomy exceeds them at .21.

More accurately, the frequency for Deuteronomy is 0.205, for Genesis, 0.201, Jeremiah, 0.2, and Zechariah 0.199.

Does it matter? So far I have preferred earth over land in 315 chapters by about 2 to 1.

I think I will use land here.

What's in a three letter stem? When is it a misreading? ידה and ירה both seem to be glossed (occasionally) as throw, cast, or shoot. Reminds me of a recent book title, Eats shoots and leaves. And the importance of commas. The primary use of ירה is instruct (it is the root of Torah) and the primary use of ידה is thanks. It is easy to see how resh (ר) and dalet (ד) could be confused with each other, one wonders if the manuscript reading is just wrong. I have occasionally changed a reading, but rarely. In Zechariah 1:21 (Hebrew 2:4) I wonder what is going on with readings. And I wonder what I will do. Undoubtedly it will be an interpretive move made by my own biased preconception of what the text should say. (But what reading isn't?)

But in the meanwhile here is Zechariah 1 according to the Hebrew numbering.

Zechariah 1
בַּחֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ הַשְּׁמִינִ֔י בִּשְׁנַ֥ת שְׁתַּ֖יִם לְדָרְיָ֑וֶשׁ
הָיָ֣ה דְבַר־יְהוָ֗ה אֶל־זְכַרְיָה֙ בֶּן־בֶּ֣רֶכְיָ֔ה בֶּן־עִדּ֥וֹ הַנָּבִ֖יא לֵאמֹֽר
1 In the eighth new moon in the second year of Darius,
it happened that Yahweh spoke to Zechariah, child of Berechiah, child of Iddo the prophet, saying,
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22
קָצַ֧ף יְהוָ֛ה עַל־אֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם קָֽצֶף 2 Enraged, Yahweh was, over your ancestors, enraged. 11
וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֗ם כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת שׁ֣וּבוּ אֵלַ֔י נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת
וְאָשׁ֣וּב אֲלֵיכֶ֔ם אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת
3 So say to them, Thus says Yahweh of hosts, Turn to me, an oracle of Yahweh of hosts,
and I will turn to you, says Yahweh of hosts.
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13
אַל־תִּהְי֣וּ כַאֲבֹֽתֵיכֶ֡ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר קָרְאֽוּ־אֲלֵיהֶם֩ הַנְּבִיאִ֨ים הָרִֽאשֹׁנִ֜ים לֵאמֹ֗ר כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת שׁ֤וּבוּ נָא֙ מִדַּרְכֵיכֶ֣ם הָרָעִ֔ים וּמַֽעֲלְלֵיכֶ֖ם הָֽרָעִ֑ים
וְלֹ֥א שָׁמְע֛וּ וְלֹֽא־הִקְשִׁ֥יבוּ אֵלַ֖י נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה
4 Do not be like your ancestors to whom the former prophets called saying, Thus says Yahweh of hosts, Turn now from your evil ways and from your evil wantonness.
And they did not hear and they did not attend to me, an oracle of Yahweh.
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אֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם אַיֵּה־הֵ֑ם
וְהַ֨נְּבִאִ֔ים הַלְעוֹלָ֖ם יִֽחְיֽוּ
5 Your ancestors, where are they?
And the prophets, do they live forever?
7
9
אַ֣ךְ ׀ דְּבָרַ֣י וְחֻקַּ֗י אֲשֶׁ֤ר צִוִּ֙יתִי֙ אֶת־עֲבָדַ֣י הַנְּבִיאִ֔ים הֲל֥וֹא הִשִּׂ֖יגוּ אֲבֹתֵיכֶ֑ם
וַיָּשׁ֣וּבוּ וַיֹּאמְר֗וּ כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר זָמַ֜ם יְהוָ֤ה צְבָאוֹת֙ לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת לָ֔נוּ כִּדְרָכֵ֙ינוּ֙ וּכְמַ֣עֲלָלֵ֔ינוּ כֵּ֖ן עָשָׂ֥ה אִתָּֽנוּ ס
6 Surely my words and my statutes, which I commanded my servants the prophets, did not they overtake your ancestors?
And they returned and they said, As Yahweh of hosts intended to do to us according to our ways and according to our practice, so he dealt with us. S
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בְּיוֹם֩ עֶשְׂרִ֨ים וְאַרְבָּעָ֜ה לְעַשְׁתֵּֽי־עָשָׂ֥ר חֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ הוּא־חֹ֣דֶשׁ שְׁבָ֔ט בִּשְׁנַ֥ת שְׁתַּ֖יִם לְדָרְיָ֑וֶשׁ
הָיָ֣ה דְבַר־יְהוָ֗ה אֶל־זְכַרְיָה֙ בֶּן־בֶּ֣רֶכְיָ֔הוּ בֶּן־עִדּ֥וֹא הַנָּבִ֖יא לֵאמֹֽר
7 On the twenty-fourth day of the eleventh new moon (this is the month of Shebat) in the second year of Darius,
it happened that Yahweh spoke to Zechariah, child of Berechiah, child of Iddo the prophet, saying,
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23
רָאִ֣יתִי ׀ הַלַּ֗יְלָה וְהִנֵּה־אִישׁ֙ רֹכֵב֙ עַל־ס֣וּס אָדֹ֔ם וְה֣וּא עֹמֵ֔ד בֵּ֥ין הַהֲדַסִּ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּמְּצֻלָ֑ה
וְאַחֲרָיו֙ סוּסִ֣ים אֲדֻמִּ֔ים שְׂרֻקִּ֖ים וּלְבָנִֽים
8 I saw in the night, and behold a man riding upon a ruddy horse and he stood between the myrtle that are in a shady place,
and behind it horses, ruddy, sorrel, and white.
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15
וָאֹמַ֖ר מָה־אֵ֣לֶּה אֲדֹנִ֑י
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֗י הַמַּלְאָךְ֙ הַדֹּבֵ֣ר בִּ֔י אֲנִ֥י אַרְאֶ֖ךָּ מָה־הֵ֥מָּה אֵֽלֶּה
9 And I said, What are these, my Lord?
And the angel of the one speaking in me said to me, I myself will show you what they are, these.
9
22
וַיַּ֗עַן הָאִ֛ישׁ הָעֹמֵ֥ד בֵּין־הַהַדַסִּ֖ים וַיֹּאמַ֑ר
אֵ֚לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֣ר שָׁלַ֣ח יְהוָ֔ה לְהִתְהַלֵּ֖ךְ בָּאָֽרֶץ
10 And answered the man standing between the myrtle and said,
These, that Yahweh sent to walk in the land.
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15
וַֽיַּעֲנ֞וּ אֶת־מַלְאַ֣ךְ יְהוָ֗ה הָֽעֹמֵד֙ בֵּ֣ין הַהֲדַסִּ֔ים וַיֹּאמְר֖וּ הִתְהַלַּ֣כְנוּ בָאָ֑רֶץ
וְהִנֵּ֥ה כָל־הָאָ֖רֶץ יֹשֶׁ֥בֶת וְשֹׁקָֽטֶת
11 And they answered the angel of Yahweh standing between the myrtle, and they said, We have walked in the land,
and behold all the land sits and is quiet.
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14
וַיַּ֣עַן מַלְאַךְ־יְהוָה֮ וַיֹּאמַר֒ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת עַד־מָתַ֗י אַתָּה֙ לֹֽא־תְרַחֵ֣ם אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַ֔ם וְאֵ֖ת עָרֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֑ה
אֲשֶׁ֣ר זָעַ֔מְתָּה זֶ֖ה שִׁבְעִ֥ים שָׁנָֽה
12 And the angel of Yahweh answered and said, Yahweh of hosts, long how will you not have compassion on Jerusalem and the cities of Judah,
against which you have had indignation this seventy year span.
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10
וַיַּ֣עַן יְהוָ֗ה אֶת־הַמַּלְאָ֛ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֥ר בִּ֖י דְּבָרִ֣ים טוֹבִ֑ים
דְּבָרִ֖ים נִחֻמִֽים
13 And Yahweh answered the angel of the one speaking in me good things,
things that are comforting.
18
6
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֗י הַמַּלְאָךְ֙ הַדֹּבֵ֣ר בִּ֔י קְרָ֣א לֵאמֹ֔ר כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת
קִנֵּ֧אתִי לִירוּשָׁלִַ֛ם וּלְצִיּ֖וֹן קִנְאָ֥ה גְדוֹלָֽה
14 And the angel of the one speaking in me said to me, Call saying, Thus says Yahweh of hosts,
I am jealous for Jerusalem and for Zion a great jealousy.
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15
וְקֶ֤צֶף גָּדוֹל֙ אֲנִ֣י קֹצֵ֔ף עַל־הַגּוֹיִ֖ם הַשַּֽׁאֲנַנִּ֑ים
אֲשֶׁ֤ר אֲנִי֙ קָצַ֣פְתִּי מְּעָ֔ט וְהֵ֖מָּה עָזְר֥וּ לְרָעָֽה
15 And with great rage I am enraged concerning the tranquil nations,
that I was enraged against a little but they helped the injury.
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לָכֵ֞ן כֹּֽה־אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה שַׁ֤בְתִּי לִירוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ בְּֽרַחֲמִ֔ים בֵּיתִי֙ יִבָּ֣נֶה בָּ֔הּ נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת
וְקָ֥ו יִנָּטֶ֖ה עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם
16 Therefore thus says Yahweh, I have returned to Jerusalem with compassions. My house will be built in her, an oracle of Yahweh of hosts,
and a line will be stretched out to Jerusalem.
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10
ע֣וֹד ׀ קְרָ֣א לֵאמֹ֗ר כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת ע֛וֹד תְּפוּצֶ֥ינָה עָרַ֖י מִטּ֑וֹב
וְנִחַ֨ם יְהוָ֥ה עוֹד֙ אֶת־צִיּ֔וֹן וּבָחַ֥ר ע֖וֹד בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם ס
17 Still call saying, Thus says Yahweh of hosts, Still my cities will be dispersed from good,
and Yahweh still comforts Zion and he chose still against Jerusalem.
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