Wednesday, June 15, 2016

Genesis 9

Curious to me that cloud is used as a verb here. We speak of it 'clouding over', but God says, when I cloud-over a cloud over... awkward in English but a repetition in Hebrew. And God is the actor. The other day a colleague remarked that it was God's sky over the University, the clouds were so intriguing and beautiful. I also note a three-fold phrasing of the covenant, first with the earth, then with all flesh, then with all flesh that is on the earth. The verb used for the covenant has several glosses available within my rules, such as arise, upholdraise up or place (קום). I have chosen place deliberately. It is distinct from the covenant that is cut with Abraham.

Note as per usual, I may use many glosses for a single Hebrew root. This is unavoidable and desirable, but I refrain from using a gloss in English that would map to multiple Hebrew stems. For this rule, I allow myself exceptions for naturally occurring homonyms, word play in English, and a few very common words like go and come where the sense is largely unaffected but where the English would be completely unidiomatic.

My English may be awkward but sometimes it is so that we don't forget this is a translation and that much of it is foreign to our thinking. If anyone is interested, I have a full list of my exceptions. There are about 200. At the moment this is approximately a 4% stem ratio overlap, number of compromised stems/ number of distinct stems (3782). The count of English stems is about 2.5 times the number of Hebrew stems, again 'at the moment'.

One does see some apparently impossible uses. I would like to say that Shem, Ham, and Japhet smashed the earth, as indeed seems to have been the case today. It is that same word that frames the Psalms, in Psalm 2 and 137, smash to pieces, but I have relented and succumbed to the usual guess at authorial intent. No translation observes the literal use of this root. All translators are forced into a 'sensible' guess when a word is used in an unusual context. They say, Well it couldn't mean this in this context, so it must have been used differently here. And perhaps so. My choice (populated) may not survive the rest of this project - who knows? I already used depopulated in Nahum, and while populated is different and therefore meets the superficial rule, I could not tell you about the Hebrew relation in tone between בלק (mostly used as a name for a famous enemy) and נפץ (smashed).

And one does invent some phrases that perhaps one shouldn't (read the verses to discover this). And one does discover some surprises. It might not be so bad to be the servant of servants. You'd be in good company. And as for Japhet, not sure I want the blessing.

So with all that unnecessary preamble, here is the chapter.

Genesis 9
וַיְבָ֣רֶךְ אֱלֹהִ֔ים אֶת־נֹ֖חַ וְאֶת־בָּנָ֑יו
וַיֹּ֧אמֶר לָהֶ֛ם פְּר֥וּ וּרְב֖וּ וּמִלְא֥וּ אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ
1 And God blessed Noah and his children,
and said to them, Be fruitful and increase and fill the earth.
13
16
וּמוֹרַאֲכֶ֤ם וְחִתְּכֶם֙ יִֽהְיֶ֔ה עַ֚ל כָּל־חַיַּ֣ת הָאָ֔רֶץ וְעַ֖ל כָּל־ע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם
בְּכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּרְמֹ֧שׂ הָֽאֲדָמָ֛ה וּֽבְכָל־דְּגֵ֥י הַיָּ֖ם בְּיֶדְכֶ֥ם נִתָּֽנוּ
2 And the fear of you and dismay of you will be on every living thing of the earth and over all the fowl of the heavens,
all that creep of the ground and on all of the fishes of the sea. Into your hand they are given.
25
22
כָּל־רֶ֙מֶשׂ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הוּא־חַ֔י לָכֶ֥ם יִהְיֶ֖ה לְאָכְלָ֑ה
כְּיֶ֣רֶק עֵ֔שֶׂב נָתַ֥תִּי לָכֶ֖ם אֶת־כֹּֽל
3 Every creeping organism that is alive, to you they will be for food.
Like the herb's foliage, I have given everything to you.
14
12
אַךְ־בָּשָׂ֕ר בְּנַפְשׁ֥וֹ דָמ֖וֹ לֹ֥א תֹאכֵֽלוּ 4 But flesh in its integrity, its blood, you will not eat. 12
וְאַ֨ךְ אֶת־דִּמְכֶ֤ם לְנַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶם֙ אֶדְרֹ֔שׁ מִיַּ֥ד כָּל־חַיָּ֖ה אֶדְרְשֶׁ֑נּוּ
וּמִיַּ֣ד הָֽאָדָ֗ם מִיַּד֙ אִ֣ישׁ אָחִ֔יו אֶדְרֹ֖שׁ אֶת־נֶ֥פֶשׁ הָֽאָדָֽם
5 And surely your blood for your integrity I will search out. From the hand of all that has life I will search it out.
And from the hand of the earthling, from the hand of each person's kin, I will search out the integrity of the earthling.
21
19
שֹׁפֵךְ֙ דַּ֣ם הָֽאָדָ֔ם בָּֽאָדָ֖ם דָּמ֣וֹ יִשָּׁפֵ֑ךְ
כִּ֚י בְּצֶ֣לֶם אֱלֹהִ֔ים עָשָׂ֖ה אֶת־הָאָדָֽם
6 One shedding the blood of the human, by the human its blood will be shed,
for in the image of God, he made the human.
14
13
וְאַתֶּ֖ם פְּר֣וּ וּרְב֑וּ
שִׁרְצ֥וּ בָאָ֖רֶץ וּרְבוּ־בָֽהּ
7 But you, be fruitful and increase.
Teem in the earth and multiply in her.
7
8
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶל־נֹ֔חַ וְאֶל־בָּנָ֥יו אִתּ֖וֹ לֵאמֹֽר 8 And God said to Noah and to his children with him, saying, 17
וַאֲנִ֕י הִנְנִ֥י מֵקִ֛ים אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֖י אִתְּכֶ֑ם
וְאֶֽת־זַרְעֲכֶ֖ם אַֽחֲרֵיכֶֽם
9 And I, note me well, I am placing my covenant with you,
and your seed after you.
13
9
וְאֵ֨ת כָּל־נֶ֤פֶשׁ הַֽחַיָּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתְּכֶ֔ם בָּע֧וֹף בַּבְּהֵמָ֛ה וּֽבְכָל־חַיַּ֥ת הָאָ֖רֶץ אִתְּכֶ֑ם
מִכֹּל֙ יֹצְאֵ֣י הַתֵּבָ֔ה לְכֹ֖ל חַיַּ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ
10 And with all living beings that are with you, of the fowl and of the cattle, and of all the life of the earth with you,
from all who came forth from the barge of all the life of the earth.
26
14
וַהֲקִמֹתִ֤י אֶת־בְּרִיתִי֙ אִתְּכֶ֔ם וְלֹֽא־יִכָּרֵ֧ת כָּל־בָּשָׂ֛ר ע֖וֹד מִמֵּ֣י הַמַּבּ֑וּל
וְלֹֽא־יִהְיֶ֥ה ע֛וֹד מַבּ֖וּל לְשַׁחֵ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ
11 But I will place my covenant with you, and all flesh will not be cut off any more from the waters of the deluge,
and there will not be any more a deluge to impair the earth.
24
13
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים זֹ֤את אֽוֹת־הַבְּרִית֙ אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִ֣י נֹתֵ֗ן בֵּינִי֙ וּבֵ֣ינֵיכֶ֔ם וּבֵ֛ין כָּל־נֶ֥פֶשׁ חַיָּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתְּכֶ֑ם
לְדֹרֹ֖ת עוֹלָֽם
12 And God said, This is the sign of the covenant that I give between me and you,
and every being that has life that is with you for generations evermore.
33
5
אֶת־קַשְׁתִּ֕י נָתַ֖תִּי בֶּֽעָנָ֑ן
וְהָֽיְתָה֙ לְא֣וֹת בְּרִ֔ית בֵּינִ֖י וּבֵ֥ין הָאָֽרֶץ
13 My bow I have given in the cloud,
and it will be for a sign of a covenant between me and the earth.
9
14
וְהָיָ֕ה בְּעַֽנְנִ֥י עָנָ֖ן עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וְנִרְאֲתָ֥ה הַקֶּ֖שֶׁת בֶּעָנָֽן
14 And it will happen when I cloud over a cloud over the earth,
that the bow will appear in the cloud.
12
10
וְזָכַרְתִּ֣י אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֗י אֲשֶׁ֤ר בֵּינִי֙ וּבֵ֣ינֵיכֶ֔ם וּבֵ֛ין כָּל־נֶ֥פֶשׁ חַיָּ֖ה בְּכָל־בָּשָׂ֑ר
וְלֹֽא־יִֽהְיֶ֨ה ע֤וֹד הַמַּ֙יִם֙ לְמַבּ֔וּל לְשַׁחֵ֖ת כָּל־בָּשָֽׂר
15 And I will remember my covenant that is between me and you and every living being in all flesh,
and there will not be any more the waters of the deluge to impair all flesh.
27
16
וְהָיְתָ֥ה הַקֶּ֖שֶׁת בֶּֽעָנָ֑ן
וּרְאִיתִ֗יהָ לִזְכֹּר֙ בְּרִ֣ית עוֹלָ֔ם בֵּ֣ין אֱלֹהִ֔ים וּבֵין֙ כָּל־נֶ֣פֶשׁ חַיָּ֔ה בְּכָל־בָּשָׂ֖ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ
16 And the bow will be in a cloud,
and I will see it for the remembrance of an everlasting covenant between God and every living being in all flesh that is on the earth.
9
31
וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶל־נֹ֑חַ
זֹ֤את אֽוֹת־הַבְּרִית֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֲקִמֹ֔תִי בֵּינִ֕י וּבֵ֥ין כָּל־בָּשָׂ֖ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ
17 And said God to Noah,
This is the sign of the covenant that I have placed between me and all flesh that is on the earth.
9
23
וַיִּֽהְי֣וּ בְנֵי־נֹ֗חַ הַיֹּֽצְאִים֙ מִן־הַתֵּבָ֔ה שֵׁ֖ם וְחָ֣ם וָיָ֑פֶת
וְחָ֕ם ה֖וּא אֲבִ֥י כְנָֽעַן
18 And the children of Noah who came forth from the barge were Shem and Ham and Japhet.
And Ham, he is the father of Canaan.
19
8
שְׁלֹשָׁ֥ה אֵ֖לֶּה בְּנֵי־נֹ֑חַ
וּמֵאֵ֖לֶּה נָֽפְצָ֥ה כָל־הָאָֽרֶץ
19 These three are the children of Noah,
and from these all the earth was populated.
8
10
וַיָּ֥חֶל נֹ֖חַ אִ֣ישׁ הָֽאֲדָמָ֑ה
וַיִּטַּ֖ע כָּֽרֶם
20 And Noah started to be an estate manager,
and he planted a vineyard.
10
5
וַיֵּ֥שְׁתְּ מִן־הַיַּ֖יִן וַיִּשְׁכָּ֑ר
וַיִּתְגַּ֖ל בְּת֥וֹךְ אָהֳלֹֽה
21 And he imbibed from the wine and became intoxicated,
and he lay bare within his tent.
9
8
וַיַּ֗רְא חָ֚ם אֲבִ֣י כְנַ֔עַן אֵ֖ת עֶרְוַ֣ת אָבִ֑יו
וַיַּגֵּ֥ד לִשְׁנֵֽי־אֶחָ֖יו בַּחֽוּץ
22 And Ham the father of Canaan saw the nakedness of his father,
and he told his two brothers outside.
13
8
וַיִּקַּח֩ שֵׁ֨ם וָיֶ֜פֶת אֶת־הַשִּׂמְלָ֗ה וַיָּשִׂ֙ימוּ֙ עַל־שְׁכֶ֣ם שְׁנֵיהֶ֔ם וַיֵּֽלְכוּ֙ אֲחֹ֣רַנִּ֔ית וַיְכַסּ֕וּ אֵ֖ת עֶרְוַ֣ת אֲבִיהֶ֑ם
וּפְנֵיהֶם֙ אֲחֹ֣רַנִּ֔ית וְעֶרְוַ֥ת אֲבִיהֶ֖ם לֹ֥א רָאֽוּ
23 And Shem and Japhet took a shawl to set over their two backsides and they went backwards and covered the nakedness of their father,
and their faces were backward and the exposure of their father they did not see.
37
16
וַיִּ֥יקֶץ נֹ֖חַ מִיֵּינ֑וֹ
וַיֵּ֕דַע אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָ֥שָׂה־ל֖וֹ בְּנ֥וֹ הַקָּטָֽן
24 And Noah awoke from his wine,
and knew what his youngest son had done to him.
8
14
וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אָר֣וּר כְּנָ֑עַן
עֶ֥בֶד עֲבָדִ֖ים יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לְאֶחָֽיו
25 And he said, Cursed be Canaan,
a servant of servants he will be to his brothers.
8
10
וַיֹּ֕אמֶר בָּר֥וּךְ יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹ֣הֵי שֵׁ֑ם
וִיהִ֥י כְנַ֖עַן עֶ֥בֶד לָֽמוֹ
26 And he said blessed is Yahweh the God of Shem,
and Canaan will be their servant.
12
9
יַ֤פְתְּ אֱלֹהִים֙ לְיֶ֔פֶת וְיִשְׁכֹּ֖ן בְּאָֽהֳלֵי־שֵׁ֑ם
וִיהִ֥י כְנַ֖עַן עֶ֥בֶד לָֽמוֹ
27 God will flatter Japhet and he will dwell in the tents of Shem,
and Canaan will be their servant.
16
9
וַֽיְחִי־נֹ֖חַ אַחַ֣ר הַמַּבּ֑וּל
שְׁלֹ֤שׁ מֵאוֹת֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֖ים שָׁנָֽה
28 And Noah lived after the deluge,
three hundred and fifty years.
8
12
וַיִּֽהְיוּ֙ כָּל־יְמֵי־נֹ֔חַ תְּשַׁ֤ע מֵאוֹת֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וַחֲמִשִּׁ֖ים שָׁנָ֑ה
וַיָּמֹֽת
29 And all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years,
and he died.
19
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