Monday, July 25, 2016

Judges 1

I suspect this first chapter is intended as formative for the reader by the author. The tribes are reported as compromising with total conquest. Instead of utter destruction, it appears that the Israelites had a policy of enforced service or slavery for the non-Israelite inhabitants of the land. What this will lead to I suppose I will find out.

By happy coincidence, Claude Mariottini wrote an interesting post on a rare word in Judges 1:14. I probably would not have noticed this if he had not posted on it. And I am grateful. While rare words are one problem, common words contain many more problems for a translator. It is not just the rare words that require decisions, but also the very common ones.

E.g. in Judges 1:10, there is one of several parenthetical comments on naming of towns: now the name of Hebron before was Kirjatharba (KJV). The word rendered as ‘now’ is the very common connector for and, or, then, now and several other possibilities. It is the single letter vav or waw, a vertical stroke, ו. Vav וו (literally) is a hook. How does one chose the English gloss for such a language hook?

In this same phrase is the word before, here rendered as a temporal preposition. This word (PNH, פנה) is also very common and is the same word as face, or presence, or before as a spatial preposition. Also here is the very common homonym shem (שׁם) which is either name or there. So even with common words, there are many decisions to make.

Re the ‘meaning’ of this parenthesis, I wondered: As for ‘the town of four’, (Kirjatharba), do you think there is any significance to the name here, or is it as mundane as saying that Montreal used to be known Hochelaga? (But that could be significant.) And my Hebrew coach replied: Yes, it’s as mundane as “Montreal used to be known as Hochelaga”. Commentaries are predominantly of the opinion that “Arba” was the name of the Canaanite who lived there; others think that perhaps the town was a merger of four villages.
Judges 1
וַיְהִ֗י אַחֲרֵי֙ מ֣וֹת יְהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ וַֽיִּשְׁאֲלוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בַּיהוָ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר
מִ֣י יַעֲלֶה־לָּ֧נוּ אֶל־הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֛י בַּתְּחִלָּ֖ה לְהִלָּ֥חֶם בּֽוֹ
1And it was after the death of Joshua, and the children of Israel asked Yahweh saying,
Who will go up for us to the Canaanite to start to fight him?
23
19
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָ֖ה יְהוּדָ֣ה יַעֲלֶ֑ה
הִנֵּ֛ה נָתַ֥תִּי אֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ בְּיָדֽוֹ
2And Yahweh said, Judah will go up.
Behold I gave the land into his hand.
11
12
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוּדָה֩ לְשִׁמְע֨וֹן אָחִ֜יו עֲלֵ֧ה אִתִּ֣י בְגוֹרָלִ֗י וְנִֽלָּחֲמָה֙ בַּֽכְּנַעֲנִ֔י וְהָלַכְתִּ֧י גַם־אֲנִ֛י אִתְּךָ֖ בְּגוֹרָלֶ֑ךָ
וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ אִתּ֖וֹ שִׁמְעֽוֹן
3And Judah said to Simeon his brother, Go up with me in my lot that we may fight against the Canaanite, and I will go, even I with you in your lot.
and Simeon came with him.
42
7
וַיַּ֣עַל יְהוּדָ֔ה וַיִּתֵּ֧ן יְהוָ֛ה אֶת־הַכְּנַעֲנִ֥י וְהַפְּרִזִּ֖י בְּיָדָ֑ם
וַיַּכּ֣וּם בְּבֶ֔זֶק עֲשֶׂ֥רֶת אֲלָפִ֖ים אִֽישׁ
4And Judah went up and Yahweh gave the Canaanite and the Perizzite into their hand.
And they struck them in Sudden Epiphany ten thousand each.
23
13
וַֽ֠יִּמְצְאוּ אֶת־אֲדֹנִ֥י בֶ֙זֶק֙ בְּבֶ֔זֶק וַיִּֽלָּחֲמ֖וּ בּ֑וֹ
וַיַּכּ֕וּ אֶת־הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֖י וְאֶת־הַפְּרִזִּֽי
5And they found the Lord of Sudden Epiphany in Sudden Epiphany and they fought him,
and they struck the Canaanite and the Perizzite.
19
13
וַיָּ֙נָס֙ אֲדֹ֣נִי בֶ֔זֶק וַֽיִּרְדְּפ֖וּ אַחֲרָ֑יו
וַיֹּאחֲז֣וּ אֹת֔וֹ וַֽיְקַצְּצ֔וּ אֶת־בְּהֹנ֥וֹת יָדָ֖יו וְרַגְלָֽיו
6And the Lord of Sudden Epiphany withdrew and they pursued after him,
and grasped him and sundered the thick digits of his hands and his feet.
15
18
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲדֹֽנִי־בֶ֗זֶק שִׁבְעִ֣ים ׀ מְלָכִ֡ים בְּֽהֹנוֹת֩ יְדֵיהֶ֨ם וְרַגְלֵיהֶ֜ם מְקֻצָּצִ֗ים הָי֤וּ מְלַקְּטִים֙ תַּ֣חַת שֻׁלְחָנִ֔י כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂ֔יתִי כֵּ֥ן שִׁלַּם־לִ֖י אֱלֹהִ֑ים
וַיְבִיאֻ֥הוּ יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם וַיָּ֥מָת שָֽׁם
7And the Lord of Sudden Epiphany said, Seventy sovereigns, the thick digits of their hands and their feet sundered, were gleaning under my table. As I have done, so God has repaid me.
And they brought him to Jerusalem and he died there.
49
12
וַיִּלָּחֲמ֤וּ בְנֵֽי־יְהוּדָה֙ בִּיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם וַיִּלְכְּד֣וּ אוֹתָ֔הּ וַיַּכּ֖וּהָ לְפִי־חָ֑רֶב
וְאֶת־הָעִ֖יר שִׁלְּח֥וּ בָאֵֽשׁ
8And the children of Judah fought in Jerusalem, and they conquered her and struck her with the edge of the sword, and they set loose fire in the city.27
8
וְאַחַ֗ר יָֽרְדוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה לְהִלָּחֵ֖ם בַּֽכְּנַעֲנִ֑י
יוֹשֵׁ֣ב הָהָ֔ר וְהַנֶּ֖גֶב וְהַשְּׁפֵלָֽה
9And after the children of Judah came down to fight against the Canaanite,
those inhabiting the hill and the Negev and the lowly places.
18
12
וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֗ה אֶל־הַֽכְּנַעֲנִי֙ הַיּוֹשֵׁ֣ב בְּחֶבְר֔וֹן וְשֵׁם־חֶבְר֥וֹן לְפָנִ֖ים קִרְיַ֣ת אַרְבַּ֑ע
וַיַּכּ֛וּ אֶת־שֵׁשַׁ֥י וְאֶת־אֲחִימַ֖ן וְאֶת־תַּלְמָֽי
10And Judah went to the Canaanite that inhabits Hebron. (Now the name Hebron before was The Town of Four.)
And they struck Sheshai and Achiman and Talmai.
28
15
וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ מִשָּׁ֔ם אֶל־יוֹשְׁבֵ֖י דְּבִ֑יר
וְשֵׁם־דְּבִ֥יר לְפָנִ֖ים קִרְיַת־סֵֽפֶר
11And he went from there to the inhabitants of Devir.
(Now the name of Devir before was the town of Sapphire.)
10
11
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר כָּלֵ֔ב אֲשֶׁר־יַכֶּ֥ה אֶת־קִרְיַת־סֵ֖פֶר וּלְכָדָ֑הּ
וְנָתַ֥תִּי ל֛וֹ אֶת־עַכְסָ֥ה בִתִּ֖י לְאִשָּֽׁה
12And Caleb said, Whoever strikes the town of Sapphire and conquers it,
I will give to him Akesah my daughter as wife.
17
13
וַֽיִּלְכְּדָהּ֙ עָתְנִיאֵ֣ל בֶּן־קְנַ֔ז אֲחִ֥י כָלֵ֖ב הַקָּטֹ֣ן מִמֶּ֑נּוּ
וַיִּתֶּן־ל֛וֹ אֶת־עַכְסָ֥ה בִתּ֖וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה
13And Othniel conquered it, child of Qenaz, Caleb's brother the youngest from him.
So he gave him Akesah his daughter as wife.
20
12
וַיְהִ֣י בְּבוֹאָ֗הּ וַתְּסִיתֵ֙הוּ֙ לִשְׁא֤וֹל מֵֽאֵת־אָבִ֙יהָ֙ הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה וַתִּצְנַ֖ח מֵעַ֣ל הַחֲמ֑וֹר
וַיֹּֽאמֶר־לָ֥הּ כָּלֵ֖ב מַה־לָּֽךְ
14And it happened when she came that she incited him to ask the field from her father,
she put herself down from the ass, and Caleb said to her, What is it to you?
27
8
וַתֹּ֨אמֶר ל֜וֹ הָֽבָה־לִּ֣י בְרָכָ֗ה כִּ֣י אֶ֤רֶץ הַנֶּ֙גֶב֙ נְתַתָּ֔נִי וְנָתַתָּ֥ה לִ֖י גֻּלֹּ֣ת מָ֑יִם
וַיִּתֶּן־לָ֣הּ כָּלֵ֗ב אֵ֚ת גֻּלֹּ֣ת עִלִּ֔ית וְאֵ֖ת גֻּלֹּ֥ת תַּחְתִּֽית
15And she said to him, Provide me a blessing. For the land of the Negev you gave me. So give me rolling water.
And gave Caleb to her the upper rollers and the lower rollers.
29
17
וּבְנֵ֣י קֵינִי֩ חֹתֵ֨ן מֹשֶׁ֜ה עָל֨וּ מֵעִ֤יר הַתְּמָרִים֙ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה מִדְבַּ֣ר יְהוּדָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּנֶ֣גֶב עֲרָ֑ד
וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב אֶת־הָעָֽם
16And the children of the Kenite, Moses' father-in-law, went up from the city of the palm trees with the children of Judah to the wilderness of Judah, which is in the Negev of Arad,
and they went and inhabited with the people.
33
9
וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ יְהוּדָה֙ אֶת־שִׁמְע֣וֹן אָחִ֔יו וַיַּכּ֕וּ אֶת־הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֖י יוֹשֵׁ֣ב צְפַ֑ת
וַיַּחֲרִ֣ימוּ אוֹתָ֔הּ וַיִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שֵׁם־הָעִ֖יר חָרְמָֽה
17And Judah went with Simeon his brother and they struck the Canaanite, those inhabiting Tsephath,
and they utterly destroyed it. And he called the name of the city, Utter-Destruction.
23
16
וַיִּלְכֹּ֤ד יְהוּדָה֙ אֶת־עַזָּ֣ה וְאֶת־גְּבוּלָ֔הּ וְאֶֽת־אַשְׁקְל֖וֹן וְאֶת־גְּבוּלָ֑הּ
וְאֶת־עֶקְר֖וֹן וְאֶת־גְּבוּלָֽהּ
18And Judah conquered Gaza and her borders and Askelon and her borders,
and Eqron and her borders.
24
9
וַיְהִ֤י יְהוָה֙ אֶתּ־יְהוּדָ֔ה וַיֹּ֖רֶשׁ אֶת־הָהָ֑ר
כִּ֣י לֹ֤א לְהוֹרִישׁ֙ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵ֣י הָעֵ֔מֶק כִּי־רֶ֥כֶב בַּרְזֶ֖ל לָהֶֽם
19And Yahweh was with Judah and he dispossessed the hill,
but not to dispossess the inhabitants of the valley, for they had the iron chariot.
14
17
וַיִּתְּנ֤וּ לְכָלֵב֙ אֶת־חֶבְר֔וֹן כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּ֣ר מֹשֶׁ֑ה
וַיּ֣וֹרֶשׁ מִשָּׁ֔ם אֶת־שְׁלֹשָׁ֖ה בְּנֵ֥י הָעֲנָֽק
20And they gave Hebron to Caleb as Moses spoke,
and he dispossessed from there the three children of Anaq.
16
14
וְאֶת־הַיְבוּסִי֙ יֹשֵׁ֣ב יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֔ם לֹ֥א הוֹרִ֖ישׁוּ בְּנֵ֣י בִנְיָמִ֑ן
וַיֵּ֨שֶׁב הַיְבוּסִ֜י אֶת־בְּנֵ֤י בִנְיָמִן֙ בִּיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה
21And the Jebusite, the inhabitant of Jerusalem, the children of Benjamin did not dispossess.
The Jebusite has settled with the children of Benjamin in Jerusalem until this day.
20
21
וַיַּעֲל֧וּ בֵית־יוֹסֵ֛ף גַּם־הֵ֖ם בֵּֽית־אֵ֑ל
וַֽיהוָ֖ה עִמָּֽם
22And the house of Joseph they came up, even them, to Bethel,
and Yahweh with them.
11
4
וַיָּתִ֥ירוּ בֵית־יוֹסֵ֖ף בְּבֵֽית־אֵ֑ל
וְשֵׁם־הָעִ֥יר לְפָנִ֖ים לֽוּז
23And the house of Joseph explored in Bethel.
(Now the name of the city before was Luz.)
10
8
וַיִּרְאוּ֙ הַשֹּׁ֣מְרִ֔ים אִ֖ישׁ יוֹצֵ֣א מִן־הָעִ֑יר
וַיֹּ֣אמְרוּ ל֗וֹ הַרְאֵ֤נוּ נָא֙ אֶת־מְב֣וֹא הָעִ֔יר וְעָשִׂ֥ינוּ עִמְּךָ֖ חָֽסֶד
24And the guards saw a man coming forth from the city,
and they said to him, Show us, please, the entrance to the city and we will do your people kindness.
12
21
וַיַּרְאֵם֙ אֶת־מְב֣וֹא הָעִ֔יר וַיַּכּ֥וּ אֶת־הָעִ֖יר לְפִי־חָ֑רֶב
וְאֶת־הָאִ֥ישׁ וְאֶת־כָּל־מִשְׁפַּחְתּ֖וֹ שִׁלֵּֽחוּ
25And he showed them the entrance to the city and they struck the city with the edge of the sword,
but the man and all his family they set loose.
17
13
וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ הָאִ֔ישׁ אֶ֖רֶץ הַחִתִּ֑ים
וַיִּ֣בֶן עִ֗יר וַיִּקְרָ֤א שְׁמָהּ֙ ל֔וּז ה֣וּא שְׁמָ֔הּ עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה
26And the man went to the land of the Hittites,
and he built a city, and he called its name Luz. It is there to this day.
10
18
וְלֹא־הוֹרִ֣ישׁ מְנַשֶּׁ֗ה אֶת־בֵּית־שְׁאָ֣ן וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֶיהָ֮ וְאֶת־תַּעְנַ֣ךְ וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֶיהָ֒ וְאֶת־יֹשְׁבֵ֨י ד֜וֹר וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֶ֗יהָ וְאֶת־יוֹשְׁבֵ֤י יִבְלְעָם֙ וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֶ֔יהָ וְאֶת־יוֹשְׁבֵ֥י מְגִדּ֖וֹ וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֶ֑יהָ
וַיּ֙וֹאֶל֙ הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֔י לָשֶׁ֖בֶת בָּאָ֥רֶץ הַזֹּֽאת
27And Manasseh had not dispossessed the house of Shean and its built-up areas, nor Taanah and its built-up areas, nor the inhabitants of Dor, and its built-up areas, nor those inhabiting Yiblam and its built-up areas, nor those inhabiting Megiddo and its built-up areas,
but the Canaanite attempted to settle in that land.
63
15
וַֽיְהִי֙ כִּֽי־חָזַ֣ק יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיָּ֥שֶׂם אֶת־הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֖י לָמַ֑ס
וְהוֹרֵ֖ישׁ לֹ֥א הוֹרִישֽׁוֹ
28And it happened that Israel was encouraged, and set up the Canaanite in forced service.
So dispossession was not dispossession.
17
7
וְאֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ לֹ֣א הוֹרִ֔ישׁ אֶת־הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֖י הַיּוֹשֵׁ֣ב בְּגָ֑זֶר
וַיֵּ֧שֶׁב הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֛י בְּקִרְבּ֖וֹ בְּגָֽזֶר
29And Ephraim had not dispossessed the Canaanite that was settled in Gezer,
but the Canaanite settled with him in Gezer.
17
13
זְבוּלֻ֗ן לֹ֤א הוֹרִישׁ֙ אֶת־יוֹשְׁבֵ֣י קִטְר֔וֹן וְאֶת־יוֹשְׁבֵ֖י נַהֲלֹ֑ל
וַיֵּ֤שֶׁב הַֽכְּנַעֲנִי֙ בְּקִרְבּ֔וֹ וַיִּֽהְי֖וּ לָמַֽס
30Zebulun had not dispossessed those inhabiting Kitron nor the inhabitants of Nahalol,
but the Canaanite settled with him and they were in forced service.
18
15
אָשֵׁ֗ר לֹ֤א הוֹרִישׁ֙ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵ֣י עַכּ֔וֹ וְאֶת־יוֹשְׁבֵ֖י צִיד֑וֹן
וְאֶת־אַחְלָ֤ב וְאֶת־אַכְזִיב֙ וְאֶת־חֶלְבָּ֔ה וְאֶת־אֲפִ֖יק וְאֶת־רְחֹֽב
31Asher had not dispossessed the inhabitants of Ako nor those inhabiting Sidon,
nor Achlab nor Akzib nor Chelebah nor of the river channel nor of the wide open.
16
20
וַיֵּ֙שֶׁב֙ הָאָ֣שֵׁרִ֔י בְּקֶ֥רֶב הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֖י יֹשְׁבֵ֣י הָאָ֑רֶץ
כִּ֖י לֹ֥א הוֹרִישֽׁוֹ
32But the Asherites inhabited cheek by jowl with the Canaanite inhabitants of the land,
for they did not effect dispossession.
19
5
נַפְתָּלִ֗י לֹֽא־הוֹרִ֞ישׁ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵ֤י בֵֽית־שֶׁ֙מֶשׁ֙ וְאֶת־יֹשְׁבֵ֣י בֵית־עֲנָ֔ת וַיֵּ֕שֶׁב בְּקֶ֥רֶב הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֖י יֹשְׁבֵ֣י הָאָ֑רֶץ
וְיֹשְׁבֵ֤י בֵֽית־שֶׁ֙מֶשׁ֙ וּבֵ֣ית עֲנָ֔ת הָי֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם לָמַֽס
33Naphtali had not dispossessed the inhabitants of the house of the sun nor the inhabitants of the house of Anah but settled cheek by jowl with the Canaanite, those inhabiting the land.
And the inhabitants of the house of the sun and the house of Anah were for them in forced service.
33
16
וַיִּלְחֲצ֧וּ הָאֱמֹרִ֛י אֶת־בְּנֵי־דָ֖ן הָהָ֑רָה
כִּי־לֹ֥א נְתָנ֖וֹ לָרֶ֥דֶת לָעֵֽמֶק
34And the Amorite kept a grip on the children of Dan toward the mountain,
for not they would permit descent to the valley.
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10
וַיּ֤וֹאֶל הָֽאֱמֹרִי֙ לָשֶׁ֣בֶת בְּהַר־חֶ֔רֶס בְּאַיָּל֖וֹן וּבְשַֽׁעַלְבִ֑ים
וַתִּכְבַּד֙ יַ֣ד בֵּית־יוֹסֵ֔ף וַיִּהְי֖וּ לָמַֽס
35But the Amorite attempted to settle in the hill of Cheres in Ailon in Shaalbim,
but the hand of the house of Joseph was heavy and they were in forced service.
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12
וּגְבוּל֙ הָאֱמֹרִ֔י מִֽמַּעֲלֵ֖ה עַקְרַבִּ֑ים
מֵהַסֶּ֖לַע וָמָֽעְלָה
36And the borders of the Amorite were from the ascents of the scorpions,
from the cliff and upward.
13
7


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