Wednesday, July 6, 2016

Deuteronomy 32

Why, I wonder, is Moses addressed in the second person plural in the last few verses? I have seen the people as singular but it seems rare to see a named person as plural. Is it the multifarious interpretations of regulation that are in view? Is Moses somehow not unified? He is singular in verse 50 and plural in verse 51. Holy contention in the wilderness of barbs. Yahweh is not pleased with anyone here - yet he will find his completion in the blood of one who is profaned (verse 42). Did Jesus read this and realize that he must be made sin? Certainly Paul's insights are grounded in these texts.

The stuttering of impairment is here (v 5).  The subject of impairment is not confined to the chosen, but the chosen is the example of impairment for the world that it might see its own trouble.

Here is the source of Vengeance is mine, but in Hebrew it is a different sequence, to me, vengeance. What does it mean? Is it a battle cry or a cry of love? Note the trouble of the human, the turmoil of worship coming from within (v 17), the tendency to doubt even its own best thought (v 47).

Does Yahweh turn away from anger or from grief? Are the drastic consequences of the human trouble out of his control? Note Hosea's dependency on Moses (v 21). But this God could not give up on his example for fear of failure with all humanity, itself organized 'for the record of the children of Israel'. Work on verse 31, it's a koan. All modern false gods are here in this ancient text.

Law and promise - how do they relate?

Deuteronomy 32
הַאֲזִ֥ינוּ הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וַאֲדַבֵּ֑רָה
וְתִשְׁמַ֥ע הָאָ֖רֶץ אִמְרֵי־פִֽי
1 Give ear O heavens, and I will speak,
and hear O earth, the promises of my mouth.
12
9
יַעֲרֹ֤ף כַּמָּטָר֙ לִקְחִ֔י תִּזַּ֥ל כַּטַּ֖ל אִמְרָתִ֑י
כִּשְׂעִירִ֣ם עֲלֵי־דֶ֔שֶׁא וְכִרְבִיבִ֖ים עֲלֵי־עֵֽשֶׂב
2 What I have received will seep in as rain. My promise will flow as dew,
as drizzle over verdant herbs, and as copious showers on field-grass.
15
13
כִּ֛י שֵׁ֥ם יְהוָ֖ה אֶקְרָ֑א
הָב֥וּ גֹ֖דֶל לֵאלֹהֵֽינוּ
3 For the name of Yahweh I proclaim.
Ascribe greatness to our God.
6
8
הַצּוּר֙ תָּמִ֣ים פָּעֳל֔וֹ כִּ֥י כָל־דְּרָכָ֖יו מִשְׁפָּ֑ט
אֵ֤ל אֱמוּנָה֙ וְאֵ֣ין עָ֔וֶל צַדִּ֥יק וְיָשָׁ֖ר הֽוּא
4 The Rock, complete is his work, for all his ways are judgment.
A God of faithfulness, and there is no injustice. A righteous one, and upright is he.
14
14
שִׁחֵ֥ת ל֛וֹ לֹ֖א בָּנָ֣יו מוּמָ֑ם
דּ֥וֹר עִקֵּ֖שׁ וּפְתַלְתֹּֽל
5 It became impaired for him. Not his children, their spot,
a generation devious and tortuous.
8
6
הֲ־לַיְהוָה֙ תִּגְמְלוּ־זֹ֔את עַ֥ם נָבָ֖ל וְלֹ֣א חָכָ֑ם
הֲלוֹא־הוּא֙ אָבִ֣יךָ קָּנֶ֔ךָ ה֥וּא עָֽשְׂךָ֖ וַֽיְכֹנְנֶֽךָ
6 Do you reward this to Yahweh, senseless people and unwise?
Is he not your father? He purchased you himself. He made you, and he established you.
14
16
זְכֹר֙ יְמ֣וֹת עוֹלָ֔ם בִּ֖ינוּ שְׁנ֣וֹת דּוֹר־וָד֑וֹר
שְׁאַ֤ל אָבִ֙יךָ֙ וְיַגֵּ֔דְךָ זְקֵנֶ֖יךָ וְיֹ֥אמְרוּ לָֽךְ
7 Remember the days of eras past. Understand the years of generation upon generation.
Ask your father and he will make it clear to you, the elders, and they will say to you:
13
17
בְּהַנְחֵ֤ל עֶלְיוֹן֙ גּוֹיִ֔ם בְּהַפְרִיד֖וֹ בְּנֵ֣י אָדָ֑ם
יַצֵּב֙ גְּבֻלֹ֣ת עַמִּ֔ים לְמִסְפַּ֖ר בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
8 When the Most High gave inheritance to nations, when he separated for himself the children of humanity,
he fixed the borders of the peoples for the record of the children of Israel.
15
15
כִּ֛י חֵ֥לֶק יְהֹוָ֖ה עַמּ֑וֹ
יַעֲקֹ֖ב חֶ֥בֶל נַחֲלָתֽוֹ
9 For Yahweh's chosen share is his people.
Jacob is the pledge of his inheritance.
8
9
יִמְצָאֵ֙הוּ֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִדְבָּ֔ר וּבְתֹ֖הוּ יְלֵ֣ל יְשִׁמֹ֑ן
יְסֹֽבְבֶ֙נְהוּ֙ יְב֣וֹנְנֵ֔הוּ יִצְּרֶ֖נְהוּ כְּאִישׁ֥וֹן עֵינֽוֹ
10 He found him in a wilderness land, in the disorder of the howling of wasteland,
he led him round about, he gave him discernment, he preserved him as a picture in his eye.
17
16
כְּנֶ֙שֶׁר֙ יָעִ֣יר קִנּ֔וֹ עַל־גּוֹזָלָ֖יו יְרַחֵ֑ף
יִפְרֹ֤שׂ כְּנָפָיו֙ יִקָּחֵ֔הוּ יִשָּׂאֵ֖הוּ עַל־אֶבְרָתֽוֹ
11 As an eagle rouses its nest over its fledglings brooding,
spreading its wings, taking them, lifting them up on its pinions,
14
17
יְהוָ֖ה בָּדָ֣ד יַנְחֶ֑נּוּ
וְאֵ֥ין עִמּ֖וֹ אֵ֥ל נֵכָֽר
12 Yahweh unassisted guided him
and there was no alien god with him.
7
7
יַרְכִּבֵ֙הוּ֙ עַל־בָּ֣מֳתֵי אָ֔רֶץ וַיֹּאכַ֖ל תְּנוּבֹ֣ת שָׂדָ֑י
וַיֵּנִקֵ֤הֽוּ דְבַשׁ֙ מִסֶּ֔לַע וְשֶׁ֖מֶן מֵחַלְמִ֥ישׁ צֽוּר
13 He made him ride over the high places of the land and they ate the profit of the fields,
and he made him suckle honey from cliff and oil from flinty rock,
18
17
חֶמְאַ֨ת בָּקָ֜ר וַחֲלֵ֣ב צֹ֗אן עִם־חֵ֨לֶב כָּרִ֜ים וְאֵילִ֤ים בְּנֵֽי־בָשָׁן֙ וְעַתּוּדִ֔ים עִם־חֵ֖לֶב כִּלְי֣וֹת חִטָּ֑ה
וְדַם־עֵנָ֖ב תִּשְׁתֶּה־חָֽמֶר
14 Clotted cream of herd, and milk of sheep, with milk of meadows, and rams of the children of Bashan, and goats with milk of kidneys, wheat,
and the red blood of grapes, you did imbibe.
30
8
וַיִּשְׁמַ֤ן יְשֻׁרוּן֙ וַיִּבְעָ֔ט שָׁמַ֖נְתָּ עָבִ֣יתָ כָּשִׂ֑יתָ
וַיִּטֹּשׁ֙ אֱל֣וֹהַ עָשָׂ֔הוּ וַיְנַבֵּ֖ל צ֥וּר יְשֻׁעָתֽוֹ
15 But Jeshurun was dense and kicked. Dense you were, thickened you were, covered,
and he abandoned God his maker and was senseless with the Rock of his salvation.
18
17
יַקְנִאֻ֖הוּ בְּזָרִ֑ים
בְּתוֹעֵבֹ֖ת יַכְעִיסֻֽהוּ
16 They made him jealous with strangers,
with abominations they grieved him.
7
8
יִזְבְּח֗וּ לַשֵּׁדִים֙ לֹ֣א אֱלֹ֔הַ אֱלֹהִ֖ים לֹ֣א יְדָע֑וּם
חֲדָשִׁים֙ מִקָּרֹ֣ב בָּ֔אוּ לֹ֥א שְׂעָר֖וּם אֲבֹתֵיכֶֽם
17 They offered to demons, not God, gods they did not know,
new coming from within, not the sweep of your ancestors.
17
16
צ֥וּר יְלָדְךָ֖ תֶּ֑שִׁי
וַתִּשְׁכַּ֖ח אֵ֥ל מְחֹלְלֶֽךָ
18 Of the Rock that begot you, you were unmindful,
and you forgot God who birthed you.
6
8
וַיַּ֥רְא יְהוָ֖ה וַיִּנְאָ֑ץ
מִכַּ֥עַס בָּנָ֖יו וּבְנֹתָֽיו
19 And Yahweh saw, and he is spurning,
from grief his sons and his daughters.
7
8
וַיֹּ֗אמֶר אַסְתִּ֤ירָה פָנַי֙ מֵהֶ֔ם אֶרְאֶ֖ה מָ֣ה אַחֲרִיתָ֑ם
כִּ֣י ד֤וֹר תַּהְפֻּכֹת֙ הֵ֔מָּה בָּנִ֖ים לֹא־אֵמֻ֥ן בָּֽם
20 And he said, I will hide my face from them. I see what their aftermath will be,
for a wayward generation they are, children without faithfulness in them.
17
12
הֵ֚ם קִנְא֣וּנִי בְלֹא־אֵ֔ל כִּעֲס֖וּנִי בְּהַבְלֵיהֶ֑ם
וַאֲנִי֙ אַקְנִיאֵ֣ם בְּלֹא־עָ֔ם בְּג֥וֹי נָבָ֖ל אַכְעִיסֵֽם
21 They have made me jealous with not god. They have grieved me in their futility.
And I, I will make them jealous with what is not a people, with a senseless nation I will grieve them.
15
17
כִּי־אֵשׁ֙ קָדְחָ֣ה בְאַפִּ֔י וַתִּיקַ֖ד עַד־שְׁא֣וֹל תַּחְתִּ֑ית
וַתֹּ֤אכַל אֶ֙רֶץ֙ וִֽיבֻלָ֔הּ וַתְּלַהֵ֖ט מוֹסְדֵ֥י הָרִֽים
22 For fire is incandescent in my anger and is a burning mass to the lowest grave,
and it devours earth and her produce and will blaze the foundations of the hills.
15
15
אַסְפֶּ֥ה עָלֵ֖ימוֹ רָע֑וֹת
חִצַּ֖י אֲכַלֶּה־בָּֽם
23 I will snatch away over them, evils.
My arrows I will consume in them.
7
6
מְזֵ֥י רָעָ֛ב וּלְחֻ֥מֵי רֶ֖שֶׁף וְקֶ֣טֶב מְרִירִ֑י
וְשֶׁן־בְּהֵמוֹת֙ אֲשַׁלַּח־בָּ֔ם עִם־חֲמַ֖ת זֹחֲלֵ֥י עָפָֽר
24 Gaunt of famine and battling fire-brands and bitter canker,
and the tooth of the beasts I will send among them with the poison of perturbing dust.
15
17
מִחוּץ֙ תְּשַׁכֶּל־חֶ֔רֶב וּמֵחֲדָרִ֖ים אֵימָ֑ה
גַּם־בָּחוּר֙ גַּם־בְּתוּלָ֔ה יוֹנֵ֖ק עִם־אִ֥ישׁ שֵׂיבָֽה
25 From the streets, the bereavement of the sword, and from rooms within, horror,
both youths in their prime and virgins suckling with the grey-haired.
14
13
אָמַ֖רְתִּי אַפְאֵיהֶ֑ם
אַשְׁבִּ֥יתָה מֵאֱנ֖וֹשׁ זִכְרָֽם
26 I said, I will quarter them.
I will eradicate from among mortals their remembrance,
6
8
לוּלֵ֗י כַּ֤עַס אוֹיֵב֙ אָג֔וּר פֶּֽן־יְנַכְּר֖וּ צָרֵ֑ימוֹ
פֶּן־יֹֽאמְרוּ֙ יָדֵ֣ינוּ רָ֔מָה וְלֹ֥א יְהוָ֖ה פָּעַ֥ל כָּל־זֹֽאת
27 Were it not the grief of the enemy, that I stood in awe of,
lest their foes recognize, lest they say, Our hand is high, and Yahweh has not worked all this.
15
16
כִּי־ג֛וֹי אֹבַ֥ד עֵצ֖וֹת הֵ֑מָּה
וְאֵ֥ין בָּהֶ֖ם תְּבוּנָֽה
28 For a nation, perishing of advice, are they,
and there is no understanding among them.
8
7
ל֥וּ חָכְמ֖וּ יַשְׂכִּ֣ילוּ זֹ֑את
יָבִ֖ינוּ לְאַחֲרִיתָֽם
29 If only they were wise, they had this insight,
they would discern their aftermath.
7
8
אֵיכָ֞ה יִרְדֹּ֤ף אֶחָד֙ אֶ֔לֶף וּשְׁנַ֖יִם יָנִ֣יסוּ רְבָבָ֑ה
אִם־לֹא֙ כִּי־צוּרָ֣ם מְכָרָ֔ם וַֽיהוָ֖ה הִסְגִּירָֽם
30 How does one pursue a thousand and two cause tens of thousands to withdraw,
if not because their Rock had sold them and Yahweh had imprisoned them.
16
12
כִּ֛י לֹ֥א כְצוּרֵ֖נוּ צוּרָ֑ם
וְאֹיְבֵ֖ינוּ פְּלִילִֽים
31 For not as our Rock is their rock
and our enemies are intercessors.
8
7
כִּֽי־מִגֶּ֤פֶן סְדֹם֙ גַּפְנָ֔ם וּמִשַּׁדְמֹ֖ת עֲמֹרָ֑ה
עֲנָבֵ֙מוֹ֙ עִנְּבֵי־ר֔וֹשׁ אַשְׁכְּלֹ֥ת מְרֹרֹ֖ת לָֽמוֹ
32 For from the vine of Sodom are their vines and from the fields of Gomorrah,
their grapes are grapes of want, clusters of bitterness to them.
14
15
חֲמַ֥ת תַּנִּינִ֖ם יֵינָ֑ם
וְרֹ֥אשׁ פְּתָנִ֖ים אַכְזָֽר
33 The poison of dragons their wine,
and the venom of vicious adders.
7
7
הֲלֹא־ה֖וּא כָּמֻ֣ס עִמָּדִ֑י
חָתֻ֖ם בְּאוֹצְרֹתָֽי
34 Is not it stockpiled with me?
sealed in my treasuries?
7
6
לִ֤י נָקָם֙ וְשִׁלֵּ֔ם לְעֵ֖ת תָּמ֣וּט רַגְלָ֑ם
כִּ֤י קָרוֹב֙ י֣וֹם אֵידָ֔ם וְחָ֖שׁ עֲתִדֹ֥ת לָֽמוֹ
35 Of me is vengeance and repayment. In due time their foot will be moved,
for near is the day of their misfortune, and what is impending for them hurries.
12
13
כִּֽי־יָדִ֤ין יְהוָה֙ עַמּ֔וֹ וְעַל־עֲבָדָ֖יו יִתְנֶחָ֑ם
כִּ֤י יִרְאֶה֙ כִּי־אָ֣זְלַת יָ֔ד וְאֶ֖פֶס עָצ֥וּר וְעָזֽוּב
36 For Yahweh will make the case for his people and his servants he will comfort,
because he sees that depleted is the means, and terminated, what is coerced and forsaken.
14
15
וְאָמַ֖ר אֵ֣י אֱלֹהֵ֑ימוֹ
צ֖וּר חָסָ֥יוּ בֽוֹ
37 And he said, Where are their gods,
the rock in which they take refuge,
8
5
אֲשֶׁ֨ר חֵ֤לֶב זְבָחֵ֙ימוֹ֙ יֹאכֵ֔לוּ יִשְׁתּ֖וּ יֵ֣ין נְסִיכָ֑ם
יָק֙וּמוּ֙ וְיַעְזְרֻכֶ֔ם יְהִ֥י עֲלֵיכֶ֖ם סִתְרָֽה
38 that the milk of their offerings ate, and imbibed the wine of their libations?
Let them arise and help you and be to you a hiding place.
17
15
רְא֣וּ ׀ עַתָּ֗ה כִּ֣י אֲנִ֤י אֲנִי֙ ה֔וּא וְאֵ֥ין אֱלֹהִ֖ים עִמָּדִ֑י
אֲנִ֧י אָמִ֣ית וַאֲחַיֶּ֗ה מָחַ֙צְתִּי֙ וַאֲנִ֣י אֶרְפָּ֔א וְאֵ֥ין מִיָּדִ֖י מַצִּֽיל
39 See now that I, I am he, and there is no god with me.
I, I put to death, and I make alive. I wound and I, I heal. and there is none to deliver out of my hand.
18
23
כִּֽי־אֶשָּׂ֥א אֶל־שָׁמַ֖יִם יָדִ֑י
וְאָמַ֕רְתִּי חַ֥י אָנֹכִ֖י לְעֹלָֽם
40 For I lift up to the heavens my hand,
then I say, I am life forever.
7
11
אִם־שַׁנּוֹתִי֙ בְּרַ֣ק חַרְבִּ֔י וְתֹאחֵ֥ז בְּמִשְׁפָּ֖ט יָדִ֑י
אָשִׁ֤יב נָקָם֙ לְצָרָ֔י וְלִמְשַׂנְאַ֖י אֲשַׁלֵּֽם
41 If I whet my glittering sword and my hand hold fast in the judgment ,
I will return vengeance to my foes, and those that hate me I will repay.
16
14
אַשְׁכִּ֤יר חִצַּי֙ מִדָּ֔ם וְחַרְבִּ֖י תֹּאכַ֣ל בָּשָׂ֑ר
מִדַּ֤ם חָלָל֙ וְשִׁבְיָ֔ה מֵרֹ֖אשׁ פַּרְע֥וֹת אוֹיֵֽב
42 I will make my arrows drunk with blood and my sword will devour flesh,
from the blood of one who is profaned, and captives from the head of the premiers of the enemy.
13
13
הַרְנִ֤ינוּ גוֹיִם֙ עַמּ֔וֹ כִּ֥י דַם־עֲבָדָ֖יו יִקּ֑וֹם
וְנָקָם֙ יָשִׁ֣יב לְצָרָ֔יו וְכִפֶּ֥ר אַדְמָת֖וֹ עַמּֽוֹ
43 Shout for joy, nations, his people, for the blood of his servants he will avenge,
and vengeance he will return to his foes, but he will cover over his own ground, his people.
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וַיָּבֹ֣א מֹשֶׁ֗ה וַיְדַבֵּ֛ר אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֥י הַשִּׁירָֽה־הַזֹּ֖את בְּאָזְנֵ֣י הָעָ֑ם
ה֖וּא וְהוֹשֵׁ֥עַ בִּן־נֽוּן
44 And Moses came and spoke all the words of this song in the ears of the people,
he, and Hoshea, child of Nun.
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וַיְכַ֣ל מֹשֶׁ֗ה לְדַבֵּ֛ר אֶת־כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל 45 And Moses finished speaking all these words to all Israel. 20
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵהֶם֙ שִׂ֣ימוּ לְבַבְכֶ֔ם לְכָל־הַדְּבָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָנֹכִ֛י מֵעִ֥יד בָּכֶ֖ם הַיּ֑וֹם
אֲשֶׁ֤ר תְּצַוֻּם֙ אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶ֔ם לִשְׁמֹ֣ר לַעֲשׂ֔וֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֖י הַתּוֹרָ֥ה הַזֹּֽאת
46 And he said to them, Set your hearts to all the things that I am testifying among you today,
that you will command your children to keep and to do all the words of this instruction.
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כִּ֠י לֹֽא־דָבָ֨ר רֵ֥ק הוּא֙ מִכֶּ֔ם כִּי־ה֖וּא חַיֵּיכֶ֑ם
וּבַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֗ה תַּאֲרִ֤יכוּ יָמִים֙ עַל־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אַתֶּ֜ם עֹבְרִ֧ים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֛ן שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ
47 For not an empty word it is, out of you, for it is your life,
and in this word you will prolong days over the ground that you will cross over the Jordan toward to possess it.
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וַיְדַבֵּ֤ר יְהוָה֙ אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֔ה בְּעֶ֛צֶם הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר 48 And Yahweh spoke to Moses in the numerous instances of this day, saying, 17
עֲלֵ֡ה אֶל־הַר֩ הָעֲבָרִ֨ים הַזֶּ֜ה הַר־נְב֗וֹ אֲשֶׁר֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מוֹאָ֔ב אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֣י יְרֵח֑וֹ
וּרְאֵה֙ אֶת־אֶ֣רֶץ כְּנַ֔עַן אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֲנִ֥י נֹתֵ֛ן לִבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לַאֲחֻזָּֽה
49 Ascend to the hill of the Hebrews, this hill of Nebo, that is in the land of Moab, that is over before Jericho,
and see the land of Canaan that I give to the children of Israel to hold fast.
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וּמֻ֗ת בָּהָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֤ר אַתָּה֙ עֹלֶ֣ה שָׁ֔מָּה וְהֵאָסֵ֖ף אֶל־עַמֶּ֑יךָ
כַּֽאֲשֶׁר־מֵ֞ת אַהֲרֹ֤ן אָחִ֙יךָ֙ בְּהֹ֣ר הָהָ֔ר וַיֵּאָ֖סֶף אֶל־עַמָּֽיו
50 And die on the hill that you ascend toward and be gathered to your people,
as Aaron your kin died in Hor, the hill, and was gathered to his people.
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עַל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר מְעַלְתֶּ֜ם בִּ֗י בְּתוֹךְ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בְּמֵֽי־מְרִיבַ֥ת קָדֵ֖שׁ מִדְבַּר־צִ֑ן
עַ֣ל אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־קִדַּשְׁתֶּם֙ אוֹתִ֔י בְּת֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
51 In that you trespassed against me among the children of Israel at the waters of Meribah Kedesh of the wilderness of Zin
in that you did not sanctify me among the children of Israel.
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כִּ֥י מִנֶּ֖גֶד תִּרְאֶ֣ה אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וְשָׁ֙מָּה֙ לֹ֣א תָב֔וֹא אֶל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִ֥י נֹתֵ֖ן לִבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
52 For conspicuous you will see the land,
but you will not come there to the land that I give to the children of Israel.
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