Sunday, February 19, 2017

Jeremiah 39

I have just come from a lovely talk at the Synagogue on Arabic influences in modern Hebrew. It occurred to me that hearing such nuance in modern borrowings is something we know, but how do we do such in an ancient tongue such as we are reading here? The speaker explained by dozens of examples how such talk varies by region, by demographic, and by time period, and here I am looking at the ancient tongue as a puzzle that is synchronic, appearing to me all at once in a given form. Obviously it wasn't so written. But perhaps we hear the Hebrew spoken by the Babylonians in the last two posts as different, as deliberately rude and provocative.

Here is the actual destruction. What we lack in the nuance of language is made up for in the music.

There is no rest in verse 1, the verse that heralds the destruction. The patterns of panic in the text are mimicked in the music in verses 4 and 5. (Just observe the syllable counts.) The drama of lament is anticipated in verses 6 to 9. Don't reshape them for speed-reading. Verse 15-18 show that Yahweh has favorites. Perhaps the intent of the destruction was to shake up the elite 8 people who owned 99% of the city.

Jeremiah 39 Fn Min Max Syll
בַּשָּׁנָ֣ה הַ֠תְּשִׁעִית לְצִדְקִיָּ֨הוּ מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֜ה בַּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הָעֲשִׂרִ֗י בָּ֠א נְבוּכַדְרֶאצַּ֨ר מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֤ל וְכָל־חֵילוֹ֙ אֶל־יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם וַיָּצֻ֖רוּ עָלֶֽיהָ 1 In the ninth year of Zedekiah, king of Judah, in the tenth new moon, Nebukadretsar king of Babel came and all his force to Jerusalem, and laid siege against her. 3e 4C 49
בְּעַשְׁתֵּֽי־עֶשְׂרֵ֤ה שָׁנָה֙ לְצִדְקִיָּ֔הוּ בַּחֹ֥דֶשׁ הָרְבִיעִ֖י בְּתִשְׁעָ֣ה לַחֹ֑דֶשׁ
הָבְקְעָ֖ה הָעִֽיר
2 In the eleventh year of Zedekiah, in the fourth new moon, on the ninth of the month,
the city was split.
3e 4C 24
5
וַיָּבֹ֗אוּ כֹּ֚ל שָׂרֵ֣י מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֔ל וַיֵּשְׁב֖וּ בְּשַׁ֣עַר הַתָּ֑וֶךְ
נֵרְגַ֣ל שַׂר־אֶ֠צֶר סַֽמְגַּר־נְב֞וּ שַׂר־סְכִ֣ים רַב־סָרִ֗יס נֵרְגַ֤ל שַׂר־אֶ֙צֶר֙ רַב־מָ֔ג וְכָל־שְׁאֵרִ֔ית שָׂרֵ֖י מֶ֥לֶךְ בָּבֶֽל
3 And all the nobles of the king of Babel came and sat at the central gate,
Nergal, chief of treasury, Samgar of Nebo, chief of billeting, a eunuch overlord, Nergal, chief of treasury, overlord of shields, and all the residue of the nobles of the king of Babel.
3e 4C 19
33
וַיְהִ֡י כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר רָ֠אָם צִדְקִיָּ֨הוּ מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֜ה וְכֹ֣ל ׀ אַנְשֵׁ֣י הַמִּלְחָמָ֗ה וַֽ֠יִּבְרְחוּ וַיֵּצְא֨וּ לַ֤יְלָה מִן־הָעִיר֙ דֶּ֚רֶךְ גַּ֣ן הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ בְּשַׁ֖עַר בֵּ֣ין הַחֹמֹתָ֑יִם
וַיֵּצֵ֖א דֶּ֥רֶךְ הָעֲרָבָֽה
4 And it happened, as Zedekiah, king of Judah, saw them, and all the soldiers of the battle, then they ran, and they went forth by night from the city, by way of the king's garden, at the gate between the walls,
and he went out by way of the steppe.
3e 4C 51
9
וַיִּרְדְּפ֨וּ חֵיל־כַּשְׂדִּ֜ים אַחֲרֵיהֶ֗ם וַיַּשִּׂ֣גוּ אֶת־צִדְקִיָּהוּ֮ בְּעַֽרְב֣וֹת יְרֵחוֹ֒ וַיִּקְח֣וּ אֹת֗וֹ וַֽ֠יַּעֲלֻהוּ אֶל־נְבוּכַדְרֶאצַּ֧ר מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֛ל רִבְלָ֖תָה בְּאֶ֣רֶץ חֲמָ֑ת
וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר אִתּ֖וֹ מִשְׁפָּטִֽים
5 And the force of the Chaldeans pursued after them, and they overtook Zedekiah in the steppes of Jericho, and they took him and brought him up to Nebukadretsar, king of Babel, toward Riblah, in the land of Hamath,
and he subjugated him to judgment.
3c 4B 54
8
וַיִּשְׁחַט֩ מֶ֨לֶךְ בָּבֶ֜ל אֶת־בְּנֵ֧י צִדְקִיָּ֛הוּ בְּרִבְלָ֖ה לְעֵינָ֑יו
וְאֵת֙ כָּל־חֹרֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה שָׁחַ֖ט מֶ֥לֶךְ בָּבֶֽל
6 And the king of Babel butchered the children of Zedekiah toward Riblah before his eyes.
And all the freeborn of Judah, the king of Babel butchered.
3c 4B 20
14
וְאֶת־עֵינֵ֥י צִדְקִיָּ֖הוּ עִוֵּ֑ר
וַיַּאַסְרֵ֙הוּ֙ בַּֽנְחֻשְׁתַּ֔יִם לָבִ֥יא אֹת֖וֹ בָּבֶֽלָה
7 And the eyes of Zedekiah, he blinded,
and bound him with brass chains to bring him toward Babel.
3e 4A 10
15
וְאֶת־בֵּ֤ית הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ וְאֶת־בֵּ֣ית הָעָ֔ם שָׂרְפ֥וּ הַכַּשְׂדִּ֖ים בָּאֵ֑שׁ
וְאֶת־חֹמ֥וֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם נָתָֽצוּ
8 And the house of the king, and the house of people, the Chaldeans incinerated in the fire,
and the walls of Jerusalem, they broke down.
3e 4C 18
11
וְאֵת֩ יֶ֨תֶר הָעָ֜ם הַנִּשְׁאָרִ֣ים בָּעִ֗יר וְאֶת־הַנֹּֽפְלִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נָפְל֣וּ עָלָ֔יו וְאֵ֛ת יֶ֥תֶר הָעָ֖ם הַנִּשְׁאָרִ֑ים
הֶגְלָ֛ה נְבֽוּזַראֲדָ֥ן רַב־טַבָּחִ֖ים בָּבֶֽל
9 And the remaining of the people, the residue in the city, and the fallen that fell to him, and the remaining of the people, the residue,
Nebuzaradan, the overlord of the slaughterers of Babel, had exiled.
3d 4B 33
13
וּמִן־הָעָ֣ם הַדַּלִּ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר אֵין־לָהֶם֙ מְא֔וּמָה הִשְׁאִ֛יר נְבוּזַרְאֲדָ֥ן רַב־טַבָּחִ֖ים בְּאֶ֣רֶץ יְהוּדָ֑ה
וַיִּתֵּ֥ן לָהֶ֛ם כְּרָמִ֥ים וִֽיגֵבִ֖ים בַּיּ֥וֹם הַהֽוּא
10 And from the people, the weak for whom there was nothing whatever, Nebuzaradan, the overlord of the slaughterers, left a residue in the land of Judah,
and he gave to them vineyards and ploughed fields on that day.
3d 4C 32
15
וַיְצַ֛ו נְבוּכַדְרֶאצַּ֥ר מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֖ל עַֽל־יִרְמְיָ֑הוּ
בְּיַ֛ד נְבוּזַרְאֲדָ֥ן רַב־טַבָּחִ֖ים לֵאמֹֽר
11 And Nebukadretsar king of Babel had commanded concerning Jeremiah,
into the hand of Nebuzaradan, the overlord of the slaughterers, saying,
3d 4A 16
13
קָחֶ֗נּוּ וְעֵינֶ֙יךָ֙ שִׂ֣ים עָלָ֔יו וְאַל־תַּ֥עַשׂ ל֖וֹ מְא֣וּמָה רָּ֑ע
כִּ֗י כַּֽאֲשֶׁר֙ יְדַבֵּ֣ר אֵלֶ֔יךָ כֵּ֖ן עֲשֵׂ֥ה עִמּֽוֹ
12 Take him, and set your eyes upon him, and do not harm him whatsoever.
According to what he speaks to you, so deal with him.
3e 4B 19
15
וַיִּשְׁלַ֞ח נְבֽוּזַרְאֲדָ֣ן רַב־טַבָּחִ֗ים וּנְבֽוּשַׁזְבָּן֙ רַב־סָרִ֔יס וְנֵרְגַ֥ל שַׂר־אֶ֖צֶר רַב־מָ֑ג
וְכֹ֖ל רַבֵּ֥י מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶֽל
13 And Nebuzaradan the overlord of the slaughterers  sent, and Nebuzaradan, overlord of the eunuchs, Nergal chief of treasury, overlord of shields,
and all the overlords of the king of Babel,
3e 4B 27
8
וַיִּשְׁלְחוּ֩ וַיִּקְח֨וּ אֶֽת־יִרְמְיָ֜הוּ מֵחֲצַ֣ר הַמַּטָּרָ֗ה וַיִּתְּנ֤וּ אֹתוֹ֙ אֶל־גְּדַלְיָ֙הוּ֙ בֶּן־אֲחִיקָ֣ם בֶּן־שָׁפָ֔ן לְהוֹצִאֵ֖הוּ אֶל־הַבָּ֑יִת
וַיֵּ֖שֶׁב בְּת֥וֹךְ הָעָֽם
14 They sent and they took Jeremiah from the court of the cell, and gave him to Gedoliah, child of Ahiqam, child of Shaphan, to bring him out to the house,
and he settled in the midst of the people.
3e 4C 45
7
וְאֶֽל־יִרְמְיָ֖הוּ הָיָ֣ה דְבַר־יְהוָ֑ה
בִּֽהְיֹת֣וֹ עָצ֔וּר בַּחֲצַ֥ר הַמַּטָּרָ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר
15 And to Jeremiah it happened that Yahweh spoke,
when he was detained in the court of the cell, saying.
3e 4B 12
14
הָל֣וֹךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ֡ לְעֶבֶד־מֶ֨לֶךְ הַכּוּשִׁ֜י לֵאמֹ֗ר כֹּֽה־אָמַ֞ר יְהוָ֤ה צְבָאוֹת֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הִנְנִי֩ מֵבִ֨יא אֶת־דְּבָרַ֜י אֶל־הָעִ֥יר הַזֹּ֛את לְרָעָ֖ה וְלֹ֣א לְטוֹבָ֑ה
וְהָי֥וּ לְפָנֶ֖יךָ בַּיּ֥וֹם הַהֽוּא
16 B Go and say to the servant of the king, the Cushite, saying, Thus says Yahweh of hosts, the God of Israel, Note me well, I will bring my words against this city for evil and not for good,
and they will be before you in that day.
3d 4C 51
11
וְהִצַּלְתִּ֥יךָ בַיּוֹם־הַה֖וּא נְאֻם־יְהוָ֑ה
וְלֹ֤א תִנָּתֵן֙ בְּיַ֣ד הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֥ה יָג֖וֹר מִפְּנֵיהֶֽם
17 But I will deliver you in that day, an oracle of Yahweh,
and you will not be given into the hand of persons of whom you are in terror from their presence.
3e 4C 13
20
כִּ֤י מַלֵּט֙ אֲמַלֶּטְךָ֔ וּבַחֶ֖רֶב לֹ֣א תִפֹּ֑ל
וְהָיְתָ֨ה לְךָ֤ נַפְשְׁךָ֙ לְשָׁלָ֔ל כִּֽי־בָטַ֥חְתָּ בִּ֖י נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה
18 C Because to escape, I will have you escape, and by the sword, you will not fall,
and your being will be for you as spoil, because you have trusted in me, an oracle of Yahweh.
3e 4C 14
19